This study sought to determine the frequency and types of violence that occurred during the previous year against health care workers in emergency departments in Denizli, Turkey, and to discern the views of workers on the prevention of such aggressive behavior. This study was conducted from March 1 to April 15, 2003, and included a group of 79 health care workers from the emergency departments of 3 hospitals in Denizli, namely, the Hospital of Pamukkale University Medical Faculty, the City Hospital of Denizli, and the Hospital of the Social Insurance Foundation. Data were collected from a self-administered questionnaire. In all, 88.6% of participants had been subjected to or had witnessed verbal violence, and 49.4% of them had been subjected to or had witnessed physical violence during the previous year. The most frequent reason (31.4%) for violence was abuse of alcohol and drugs by perpetrators. The second most frequent reason (24.7%) was the long waiting times typical of emergency departments. The most common type of violence was loud shouting; swearing, threatening, and hitting were the next most frequent violent behaviors. In all, 36.1% of subjects who had experienced violence reported that they developed psychological problems after the incident. Most participants commented on the insufficiency of currently available security systems within emergency departments and on the need for further training about violence. All health care personnel within emergency departments should be aware of the risk of violence and should be prepared for unpredictable conditions and events; in addition, security systems should be updated so that violence within emergency departments can be prevented.
The aim of this study was to derive regression equations for estimating stature and further to estimate sex from four measured sternal lengths. This study included intact sterna from 65 males and 30 females, aged between 25 and 40 years, obtained during medico-legal autopsies. Stature and four sternal lengths, length of the manubrium (LM), length of the body (LB), length of the manubrium and body (LMB) and total sternal length, of each cadaver were measured. Stature and all measured sternal lengths were greater in males compared to females (p < 0.001). All sternal lengths were positively correlated with stature in sexes. LMB had the highest correlation coefficient in both males and females (correlation coefficient: 0.721 and 0.740, respectively). In both sexes, linear regression analysis for stature estimation revealed equations with the highest R (2) values when derived from LMB (R (2) = 0.521 for males and R (2) = 0.547 for females). On the other hand, only the multiple linear regression equation derived from the combination of the LB and LMB had the higher R (2) value (R (2) = 0.640) for stature estimation in females. Receiver-operating curve analysis for all measurements was statistically significant (p < 0.05 for all). These findings suggested that measured sternal lengths can be used for estimation of sex. However, LB and LMB measurements were found to be the most reliable sternal lengths for estimating sex with an accuracy rate of 90 %. Our results revealed that the sternum is a useful tool for estimating stature and sex when other skeletal bones are not available.
Dichlorvos (DDVP) is an organophosphate compound that causes neurotoxicity. Apoptosis plays an important role in neurotoxic cell death in the brain. The aim of this study was to examine caspase 1, caspase-3 and also cell apoptosis related genes as p53, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha, Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1-alpha expressions in hippocampus, cerebellum, cortex, and to estimate total hippocampal neuron number in DDVP treated rats. Ten female albino rats were divided into control (n:5) and dose (n:5) groups. In dose group, single dose of DDVP (25 mg/kg) was administered to the animals via oral gavage. A week later, brains were removed and total neuron number was estimated in the left hippocampus using by optical fractionator method. The right part of the brain was used for gene expression analysis. In dose group, total hippocampal neuron number was significantly decreased compared to control group (p = 0.008). Caspase 1 and TNF-alpha gene expression were increased in all brain tissues and p53 gene expression was decreased in only hippocampus tissue in dose group. Short-term exposure to dichlorvos leads to neuronal loss in hippocampus and TNF-alpha rapidly and potently induces apoptosis and also several caspases as possible participants in the apoptotic cascade.
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