Previous studies showing that Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in children can have secondary effects on the child's parents are limited by small sample sizes and parent self-report. We examined the odds of depression in parents of children with ASD compared to parents of children without ASD using a large national claims database. Mothers (OR 2.95, 95% CI 2.81-3.09) and fathers (OR 2.41, 95% CI 2.25-2.58) of children with ASD were more likely to have a diagnosis of depression than parents of children without ASD. Odds of depression also increased when there was more than one child with ASD in the family and with child age. Study results reinforce the benefits of support and education for parents of children with ASD.
The findings suggest that commercially insured children, who enroll in hospice, have flexible coverage with a PPO. Hospital readmissions and ED visits were relatively low for a population who was seriously ill. There were significant age-group differences.
The incidence of sepsis has been rising overall but updated data in cancer patients are lacking. After a cancer diagnosis, incidence of sepsis and overall mortality peak within the first year. However, how much sepsis contributes to mortality remains unclear. We used a multistate model approach to analyze the incidence, risk factors and associated mortality of sepsis within 1 year of cancer diagnosis in middle aged adults.
Analysis of a large US health insurance claims database (Marketscan) between 2005 and 2014. Patients with a new diagnosis of cancer who received chemotherapy were included. Within a year of diagnosis, we assessed inpatient admissions for sepsis based on ICD-9 codes and survival using hospitalizations, outpatient visits and prescriptions filled. Competing risk and multistate models were used to assess the incidence of sepsis and transition probabilities between cancer, sepsis and death.
119,379 patients (38.9% males), aged 55 (50–60) years, were included; 2,560 developed isolated sepsis, 477 severe sepsis and 1331 septic shock within 1 year, with associated hospital mortality of 14.8%, 30% and 46% respectively. The probability of sepsis increased between 2005 and 2014; at 1 year, its cumulative incidence was 3.7% with a probability of mortality after sepsis of 35.5% (95% CI 21.6%-50.9%). Age, male gender, Charlson comorbidity index, hematological malignancies and metastases at diagnosis were associated with sepsis and mortality.
Incidence and mortality of sepsis were 3.7% and 35.5% at 1 year after cancer diagnosis and were both associated with baseline patient and cancer characteristics.
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a diagnostic and therapeutic emergency. Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) combined with immunosuppression has been the cornerstone of the initial management. To produce optimal benefits, emerging treatments must be used against a background of best standard of care. Clarifying current uncertainties is therefore crucial.
The objective of this study was to analyze a large high-quality database (Marketscan) of TTP patients managed between 2005 and 2014, in the pre-caplacizumab era, in order to assess the impact of time to first TPE and use of first-line rituximab on mortality, and whether mortality declines over time.
Among the 1096 included patients (median age 46 [IQR 35–55], 70% female), 28.8% received TPE before day 2 in the ICU. Hospital mortality was 7.6% (83 deaths). Mortality was independently associated with older age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.024/year; 95% confidence interval [95%CI], [1.009–1.040]), diagnosis of sepsis (HR, 2.360; 95%CI [1.552–3.588]), and the need for mechanical ventilation (HR, 4.103; 95%CI, [2.749–6.126]). Factors independently associated with lower mortality were TPE at ICU admission (HR, 0.284; 95%CI, [0.112–0.717]), TPE within one day after ICU admission (HR, 0.449; 95%CI, [0.275–0.907]), and early rituximab therapy (HR, 0.229; 95% CI, [0.111–0.471]). Delayed TPE was associated with significantly higher costs.
Immediate TPE and early rituximab are associated with improved survival in TTP patients. Improved treatments have led to a decline in mortality over time, and alternate outcome variables such as the use of hospital resources or longer term outcomes therefore need to be considered.
PurposeThe purpose of this study was to generate baseline data on the health characteristics, health care utilization, and health care spending among privately insured adolescents and young adults (AYA), who were enrolled in hospice care during their last year of life.MethodsA retrospective, nonexperimental design was used to collect and analyze longitudinal claims data from the Truven Health MarketScan™ database. The sample included AYA (aged 15–24 years) who utilized hospice during their last year of life.ResultsTotally, 17,408 AYA were included in this analysis. Mean hospice length of stay (LOS) was low overall, but there was a statistically significant difference in hospice LOS in ages 15–19 years (mean 3.56, SD 15.17 days) compared with those aged 20–24 years (mean 2.26, SD 8.24; P<0.001 days). More than a third (37%) of the AYAs used the emergency department during the last year of life and 83% sought care from a primary care visit. However, only 6% of the sample who were hospice enrollees used frequent inpatient hospital services.ConclusionsThis study provides preliminary data for private insurance expenditures and clinical utilization for AYA who were enrolled in hospice. This analysis also provides initial evidence to suggest extremely short hospice LOS for AYAs prior to the end of life and represents an area of future research need.
Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is an uncommon complication of cancers, related to the malignancy itself, antineoplastic drugs, or hematopoietic stem cell transplant. It was reported mostly as case series but large data are lacking. We used the large U.S. MarketScan database to compare TMA between patients with and without malignancy. Adult patients hospitalized between 2005 and 2014 with a diagnosis of TMA were included; cancer patients were defined by a diagnosis of cancer within 1 year prior to or during the admission with TMA. Associated inpatient diagnoses, procedures, hospital mortality, and long-term survival were collected. We included 3,227 patients; 617 (19.1%) had cancer (age 54 [44–60] years, 58% female), which was a new diagnosis for 23% of patients. Two-thirds of cancer patients had solid tumors (mostly pancreas, lung, breast, colorectal, and hepatobiliary, half of them metastatic) and one-third had hematological malignancies (lymphoma, acute leukemia, and multiple myeloma); TMA patients with cancer were older, more often men, had more noncancer-related comorbidities, and developed more sepsis and coagulopathy than TMA patients without cancer. Hospital mortality was significantly higher in cancer patients (16.6% vs. 6.1%, p < 0.001) and reached 30% in transplant recipients; malignancy was an independent risk factor for hospital mortality in multivariate analysis and sensitivity analyses excluding patients with metastases or patients who did not undergo plasmapheresis led to similar results. Malignancy was also associated with decreased long-term survival.
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