In this work, the surface heterogeneity in mechanical compressive strain of cancellous bone was investigated with digital image correlation (DIC). Moreover, the onset and progression of failure was studied by acoustic emission (AE). Cubic cancellous bone specimens, with side of 15 mm, were obtained from bovine femur and kept frozen at −20°C until testing. Specimen strain was analyzed by measuring the change of distance between the platens (crosshead) and via an optical method, by following the strain evolution with a camera. Simultaneously, AE monitoring was performed. The experiments showed that compressive Young's modulus determined by crosshead strain is underestimated at 23% in comparison to optically determined strain. However, surface strain fields defined by DIC displayed steep strain gradients, which can be attributed to cancellous bone porosity and inhomogeneity. The cumulative number of events for the total AE activity recorded from the sensors showed that the activity started at a mean load level of 36% of the maximum load and indicated the initiation of micro-cracking phenomena. Further experiments, determining 3D strain with μCT apart from surface strain, are necessary to clarify the issue of strain inhomogeneity in cancellous bone.
A detailed investigation of the relationship between ultrasonic (US) properties and trabecular bone microstructure is difficult because of the great variability in the bone loss process. The aim of this work was twofold. First, to verify by compressive tests that the three-dimensional (3D)-printer is able to produce precisely and repeatedly “bone replica models” of different size and density. Following, replicas of the original specimens with two different polymers and thinned trabeculae models were used to investigate US properties (speed of sound, SOS, and backscatter coefficient), aiming to deconvolute the influence of material properties on ultrasound characteristics. The results revealed that matrix material properties influence only the magnitude of the backscatter coefficient, whereas the characteristic undulated patterns are related to the trabecular structure. Simulation of perforation and thinning of cancellous bone, associated with bone loss, showed that SOS and mechanical properties were reduced perfectly linearly with apparent density when structure deteriorated. The 3D-printed bone replicas have the potential to enable systematic investigations of the influence of structure on both acoustical and mechanical properties and evaluate changes caused by bone loss. The development of replicas from materials with properties close to those of bone will permit quantitative conclusions for trabecular bone.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite LLC. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.