In recent years, FCA has received significant attention from research communities of various fields. Further, the theory of FCA is being extended into different frontiers and augmented with other knowledge representation frameworks. In this backdrop, this paper aims to provide an understanding of the necessary mathematical background for each extension of FCA like FCA with granular computing, a fuzzy setting, interval-valued, possibility theory, triadic, factor concepts and handling incomplete data. Subsequently, the paper illustrates emerging trends for each extension with applications. To this end, we summarize more than 350 recent (published after 2011) research papers indexed in Google Scholar, IEEE Xplore, ScienceDirect, Scopus, SpringerLink, and a few authoritative fundamental papers.
Intrusion detection is very essential for providing security to different network domains and is mostly used for locating and tracing the intruders. There are many problems with traditional intrusion detection models (IDS) such as low detection capability against unknown network attack, high false alarm rate and insufficient analysis capability. Hence the major scope of the research in this domain is to develop an intrusion detection model with improved accuracy and reduced training time. This paper proposes a hybrid intrusion detection model by integrating the principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector machine (SVM). The novelty of the paper is the optimization of kernel parameters of the SVM classifier using automatic parameter selection technique. This technique optimizes the punishment factor (C) and kernel parameter gamma (γ), thereby improving the accuracy of the classifier and reducing the training and testing time.The experimental results obtained on the NSL-KDD and gurekddcup dataset show that the proposed technique performs better with higher accuracy, faster convergence speed and better generalization. Minimum resources are consumed as the classifier input requires reduced feature set for optimum classification. A comparative analysis of hybrid models with the proposed model is also performed.ACM CCS (2012) Classification: Security and privacy → Intrusion/anomaly detection and malware mitigation → Intrusion detection systems
Intrusion detection systems (IDS) play a major rolein detecting the attacks that occur in the computer or networks. Anomaly intrusion detection models detect new attacks by observing the deviation from profile. However there are many problems in the traditional IDS such as high false alarm rate, low detection capability against new network attacks and insufficient analysis capacity. The use of machine learning for intrusion models automatically increases the performance with an improved experience. This paper proposes a novel method of integrating principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector machine (SVM) by optimizing the kernel parameters using automatic parameter selection technique. This technique reduces the training and testing time to identify intrusions thereby improving the accuracy. The proposed method was tested on KDD data set. The datasets were carefully divided into training and testing considering the minority attacks such as U2R and R2L to be present in the testing set to identify the occurrence of unknown attack. The results indicate that the proposed method is successful in identifying intrusions. The experimental results show that the classification accuracy of the proposed method outperforms other classification techniques using SVM as the classifier and other dimensionality reduction or feature selection techniques. Minimum resources are consumed as the classifier input requires reduced feature set and thereby minimizing training and testing overhead time.
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