Background: Prochilodus brevis is a rheophilic fish of economic and ecological importance. However, anthropic action has made its population vulnerable. Thus, the development of reproductive biotechnologies, such as seminal conservation, is necessary to subsidize their fish farming. However, seminal collections are often performed in places with few laboratory resources, demanding studies to determine the maximum time for which sperm can be cooled, as well as its process until frozen. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the influence of cooling time and the presence of dilution solutions on cryopreservation of P. brevis semen.Material, Methods & Results: After seminal collection, nine pools were formed and analyzed for seminal pH, concentration, membrane integrity, morphology and spermatic kinetics - motility, curvilinear velocity (VCL), average path velocity (VAP) and straight line velocity (VSL). After the analysis of the pools in natura (control 1), they were processed as follows: 1)- immediate freezing (control 2); 2)- cooling: undiluted, diluted in coconut water powder (ACP-104) or diluted in 5% glucose, followed by cooling at different times (6, 12, 24 or 48 h); 3)- Post-refrigeration freezing: the pools were diluted in their respective diluents and 10% dimethyl sulfoxide. After 15 days, the samples were thawed and analyzed for the aforementioned parameters. For the cooled and post-thawed semen, a completely randomized design with 2 (diluent × cooling time) and 3 (storage form × cooling time and storage form × diluent) factors, respectively, was utilized. ANOVA and Dunnett tests were applied to compare the means. In case of seminal cooling, there was no difference (P > 0.05) in sperm motility between control 1 and the undiluted and diluted treatments in ACP-104 for up to 24 h. After 48 h, only the VCL of the sample diluted in ACP-104 was similar (P > 0.05) to that of control 1. When comparing forms of storage (undiluted, diluted in ACP-104 or diluted in glucose) and cooling times, the undiluted samples and the samples diluted in ACP-104 were better (P < 0.05) for all the kinetics parameters analyzed, than those diluted in glucose after 24 h. After 48 h, the cooled semen diluted in ACP-104 presented greater (P < 0.05) motility than the other treated semen samples. The samples diluted in glucose for 48 h presented lower spermatic velocity (P < 0.05) than those subjected to other treatments. Regardless of the diluent used, the post-thawed semen and the cooled semen diluted for 6 h, presented higher sperm kinetic values (P < 0.05) than those of control 2 and other treated samples. Overall, the samples diluted in ACP-104 showed satisfactory results when cooled for up to 48 h or cooled for up to 6 h and frozen.Discussion: This is the first study that froze semen from P. brevis after cooling. Although glucose is a commonly used diluent during seminal freezing and has good post-thawing stability for this species, it is not recommended for cooling before seminal freezing, as prolonged exposure of spermatozoa to glucose may cause osmotic stress to sperm cells. Conversely, good results with ACP-104 might be because of its rich composition, mainly the presence of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), an auxin with proven potential for seminal conservation of other species. Therefore, for fertilization trials, it is recommended to use ACP-104 as diluent for seminal cooling of P. brevis for up to 48 h or semen that has been frozen after cooling in ACP-104 for a maximum of 6 h.
This study aimed to evaluate the quality of meat of castrated and non-castrated Santa Ines lambs submitted to food restriction. Were used 30 lambs, 15 castrated and 15 non-castrated, about two months of age and average initial body weight of 13.00 ± 1.49 kg. The lambs were distributed in a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement 3 x 2 (restriction level x sex class), according to the amount of food provided. The duration of the experiment was determined by the time required for the animals in the one of the groups achieved 28 kg of body weight. There was interaction between food restriction levels and sex class to the variables intensity of yellow color and pH in the longissimus lumborum muscle and the shear force in the semimembranosus muscle. In non-castrated animals, the intensity of yellow color was higher in the longissimus lumborum muscle at the level of 30% of food restriction. There was no significant interaction between food restriction levels and sex class for the quality aspects related to color saturation, color tone, luminosity, red intensity, water holding capacity and cooking losses in longissimus lumborum and semimembranosus muscles. Although food restriction and sex class have influenced the variables related to the quality of meat of the animals evaluated, the mean values are considered acceptable by the literature. The feeding restriction levels and sex class influence some important features of quality of Santa Ines lamb meat. Key words: Animal nutrition. Hair sheep. Ham. Loin. Qualitative parameters. ResumoObjetivou-se avaliar a qualidade da carne de cordeiros Santa Inês castrados e não castrados submetidos à restrição alimentar. Foram utilizados 30 cordeiros, 15 castrados e 15 não castrados, com aproximadamente dois meses de idade e peso corporal inicial médio de 13,00 ± 1,49 kg. Os cordeiros foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em arranjo fatorial 3 x 2 (nível de restrição x classe sexual), de acordo com a quantidade de alimento fornecido. A duração do experimento foi determinada pelo tempo necessário para que a média de peso corporal dos animais de um dos tratamentos atingisse 28 kg. Houve interação entre os níveis de restrição alimentar e as classes sexuais sobre as variáveis de intensidade de cor amarelo e pH no músculo longissimus lumborum e sobre força de cisalhamento no músculo semimembranosus. Em animais não castrados, a intensidade de cor amarelo foi maior no músculo longissimus lumborum, no nível de 30% de restrição. Não houve interação significativa entre os níveis de restrição e a classe sexual para os aspectos de qualidade relacionados à saturação de cor, tonalidade da cor, luminosidade, intensidade de vermelho, capacidade de retenção de água e perda de peso por cocção nos músculos longissimus lumborum e semimembranosus. Embora a restrição alimentar e a classe sexual tenham influenciado as variáveis relacionadas à qualidade de carne dos animais avaliados, os valores médios observados são considerados aceitáveis pela literatura. Os ...
This study was carried out to verify the effects of different hay: concentrate ratios on body, testicular and epididymal development and metabolic profile of hair sheep lambs. Twenty-nine Santa Ines lambs were used. Treatments consisted of diets with different hay: concentrate ratios (100: . The characteristics evaluated were: body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), hearth girth (HG), body length (BL), height at withers (HW), height at rump (HR), rump width (RW), chest width (CW), scrotal perimeter (SP), testis length (TL) testis width (TW), testis thickness (TT), cauda epididymal length (CEL), cauda epididymal width (CAW), cauda epididymal thickness (CET), scrotal skin thickness (SST) and testicular volume (TV). Blood samples were collected to analyze glucose, urea, albumin, total cholesterol, total proteins, inorganic phosphate and magnesium concentrations. The body and testicular-epididymal measurements increased linearly with increases in the energy concentration in the diet. BW, BL, CW, RW, HG and BCS showed positive high correlations (r = 0.71 to 0.94) with all testis-epididymal measurements. The results of the metabolic profile study showed interactions between the addition of the concentrated feed and time of blood collection on total proteins, albumin, urea, cholesterol, phosphorus and magnesium concentrations. At the beginning of the trial, hypoproteinemia and hypoalbuminemia were verified in T3 and T4. However, the indices returned to normal over time with the continuity in the diet supplied. Hypomagnesaemia was verified in all treatments. The plasmatic phosphorus concentration was sufficiently high at the end of all treatments, except control. In conclusion, the BL, HG, CW, RW as well as the BCS may be used to estimate the development of the testes and epididymis. The metabolic profile results verified that adjusts are necessary in the amount of concentrated feed given to the lambs when Tifton 85 hay (Cynodon spp) is provided to the animals. ResumoEste estudo objetivou verificar os efeitos de diferentes proporções de feno: concentrado sobre o desenvolvimento corporal, testicular e epididimário, bem como, sobre perfil metabólico de cordeiros deslanados. Foram utilizados vinte e nove cordeiros Santa Inês. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de dietas com diferentes proporções de feno: concentrado (100: 0-Controle; 80: 20-T1, 60: 40-T2, 40: 60-T3 e 20: 80-T4). As características avaliadas foram: peso corporal (PC), escore de condição corporal (ECC), perímetro torácico (PT), comprimento do corpo (CC), altura na cernelha (AC), altura na garupa (AG), largura da garupa (LG), largura do peito (LP), perímetro escrotal (PS), comprimento do testículo (CT) largura dos testículos (LT), espessura de testículo (ET), comprimento da cauda do epidídimo (CCE), a largura da cauda do epidídimo (LCE), espessura da cauda do epidídimo (ECE), espessura da pele escrotal (EPE) e volume testicular (VT). Amostras de sangue foram colhidas para análise de glicose, ureia, albumina, colesterol total, proteínas totais, f...
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