To facilitate the systematic description of catatonic signs, we developed a catatonia rating examination, rating scale and screening instrument. We constructed a 23-item rating scale and a truncated 14-item screening instrument using operationalized definitions of signs ascribed to catatonia in published sources. Inter-rater reliability was tested in 44 simultaneous ratings of 28 cases defined by the presence of > or = 2 signs on the 14-item screen. Inter-rater reliability for total score on the rating scale was 0.93, and mean agreement of items was 88.2% (SD 9.9). Inter-rater reliability for total score on the screening instrument was 0.95, and mean agreement of items was 92.7% (SD 4.9). Diagnostic agreement was high based on criteria for catatonia put forth by other authors. Seven per cent (15/215) of consecutively admitted patients to an academic psychiatric in-patient facility met criteria for catatonia. It is concluded that catatonia is a distinct, moderately prevalent neuropsychiatric syndrome. The rating scale and screening instrument are reliable and valid. Their use facilitates diagnosis, treatment protocols, and cross-study comparisons.
Among patients with unstable angina or myocardial infarction without ST-segment elevation, prasugrel did not significantly reduce the frequency of the primary end point, as compared with clopidogrel, and similar risks of bleeding were observed. (Funded by Eli Lilly and Daiichi Sankyo; TRILOGY ACS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00699998.).
Case material and retrospective studies support the use of both lorazepam and ECT in treating catatonia, but few prospective investigations exist and none employ quantitative monitoring of response. In this study we test their efficacy in an open, prospective protocol, and define a "lorazepam test' with predictive value for treatment. Twenty-eight patients with catatonia were treated systematically with parenteral and/or oral lorazepam for up to 5 days, and with ECT if lorazepam failed. Outcome was monitored quantitatively during the treatment phase with the Bush-Francis Catatonia Rating Scale (BFCRS). In 16 of 21 patients (76%) who received a complete trial of lorazepam (11 with initial intravenous challenge), catatonic signs resolved. A positive response to an initial parenteral challenge predicted final lorazepam response, as did length of catatonic symptoms prior to treatment. Neither demographic variables nor severity of catatonia predicted response to lorazepam. Four patients failing lorazepam responded promptly to ECT. It is concluded that lorazepam and ECT are effective treatments for catatonia. The rating scale has predictive value and displays sensitivity to change in clinical status.
We estimate the momentum diffusion coefficient of a heavy quark within a pure SU(3) plasma at a temperature of about 1.5T c . Large-scale Monte Carlo simulations on a series of lattices extending up to 192 3 × 48 permit us to carry out a continuum extrapolation of the so-called colour-electric imaginary-time correlator. The extrapolated correlator is analyzed with the help of theoretically motivated models for the corresponding spectral function. Evidence for a non-zero transport coefficient is found and, incorporating systematic uncertainties reflecting model assumptions, we obtain κ = (1.8 − 3.4) T 3 . This implies that the "drag coefficient", characterizing the time scale at which heavy quarks adjust to hydrodynamic flow, is η −1 D = (1.8 − 3.4)(T c /T ) 2 (M/1.5GeV) fm/c, where M is the heavy quark kinetic mass. The results apply to bottom and, with somewhat larger systematic uncertainties, to charm quarks.
Abstract. We present results for screening masses of mesons built from light and strange quarks in the temperature range of approximately between 140 MeV to 800 MeV. The lattice computations were performed with 2 + 1 dynamical light and strange flavors of improved (p4) staggered fermions along a line of constant physics defined by a pion mass of about 220 MeV and a kaon mass of 500 MeV. The lattices had temporal extents Nτ = 4, 6 and 8 and aspect ratios of Ns/Nτ ≥ 4. At least up to a temperature of 140 MeV the pseudo-scalar screening mass remains almost equal to the corresponding zero temperature pseudo-scalar (pole) mass. At temperatures around 3Tc (Tc being the transition temperature) the continuum extrapolated pseudo-scalar screening mass approaches very close to the free continuum result of 2πT from below. On the other hand, at high temperatures the vector screening mass turns out to be larger than the free continuum value of 2πT . The pseudo-scalar and the vector screening masses do not become degenerate even for a temperature as high as 4Tc. Using these mesonic spatial correlation functions we have also investigated the restoration of chiral symmetry and the effective restoration of the axial symmetry. We have found that the vector and the axial-vector screening correlators become degenerate, indicating chiral symmetry restoration, at a temperature which is consistent with the QCD transition temperature obtained in previous studies. On the other hand, the pseudo-scalar and the scalar screening correlators become degenerate only at temperatures larger than 1.3Tc, indicating that the effective restoration of the axial symmetry takes place at a temperature larger than the QCD transition temperature.
Decontamination of metal surfaces contaminated with low levels of radionuclides is a major concern at Department of Energy facilities. The development of an environmentally friendly and cost-effective decontamination process requires an understanding of their association with the corroding surfaces. We investigated the association of uranium with the amorphous and crystalline forms of iron oxides commonly formed on corroding steel surfaces. Uranium was incorporated with the oxide by addition during the formation of ferrihydrite, goethite, green rust II, lepidocrocite, maghemite, and magnetite. X-ray diffraction confirmed the mineralogical form of the oxide. EXAFS analysis at the U L III edge showed that uranium was present in hexavalent form as a uranyl oxyhydroxide species with goethite, maghemite, and magnetite and as a bidentate innersphere complex with ferrihydrite and lepidocrocite. Iron was present in the ferric form with ferrihydrite, goethite, lepidocrocite, and maghemite; whereas with magnetite and green rust II, both ferrous and ferric forms were present with characteristic ferrous:total iron ratios of 0.65 and 0.73, respectively. In the presence of the uranyl ion, green rust II was converted to magnetite with concomitant reduction of uranium to its tetravalent form. The rate and extent of uranium dissolution in dilute HCl depended on its association with the oxide: uranium present as oxyhydroxide species underwent rapid dissolution followed by a slow dissolution of iron; whereas uranium present as an inner-sphere complex with iron resulted in concomitant dissolution of the uranium and iron.
Speciation of uranium in cultures of Clostridium sp. by X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) at the National Synchrotron Light Source and by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that U(VI) was reduced toU(IV). In addition toU(IV), a lower oxidation state of uranium, most probably U(III), was detected by XANES in the bacterial cultures. Reduction of uranium occurred only in the presence of growing or resting cells. Organic acid metabolites, the extracellular components of the culture medium, and heat-killed cells failed to reduce uranium under anaerobic conditions. The addition of uranyl acetate or uranyl nitrate (>210 µ U) to the culture medium retarded the growth of the bacteria as evidenced by an increase in the lag period before resumption of growth, by decreases in turbidity, and in the total production of gas and organic acid metabolites. These results show that uranium in wastes can be stabilized by the action of anaerobic bacteria.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers