SUMMARY Mechanisms of metabolic flexibility enable cells to survive under stressful conditions and can thwart therapeutic responses. Acetyl-CoA plays central roles in energy production, lipid metabolism, and epigenomic modifications. Here we show that upon genetic deletion of Acly, the gene coding for ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY), cells remain viable and proliferate, although at an impaired rate. In the absence of ACLY, cells upregulate ACSS2 and utilize exogenous acetate to provide acetyl-CoA for de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and histone acetylation. A physiological level of acetate is sufficient for cell viability and abundant acetyl-CoA production, although histone acetylation levels remain low in ACLY-deficient cells unless supplemented with high levels of acetate. ACLY-deficient adipocytes accumulate lipid in vivo, exhibit increased acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA production from acetate, and display some differences in fatty acid content and synthesis. Together, these data indicate that engagement of acetate metabolism is a crucial, although partial, mechanism of compensation for ACLY deficiency.
Summary The MYC oncogene encodes MYC, a transcription factor that binds the genome through sites termed E-boxes (5′-CACGTG-3′), which are identical to the binding sites of the heterodimeric CLOCK-BMAL1 master circadian transcription factor. Hence, we hypothesized that ectopic MYC expression perturbs the clock by deregulating E-box-driven components of the circadian network in cancer cells. We report here that deregulated expression of MYC or N-MYC disrupts the molecular clock in vitro by directly inducing REV-ERBα to dampen expression and oscillation of BMAL1, and this could be rescued by knockdown of REV-ERB. REV-ERBα expression predicts poor clinical outcome for N-MYC-driven human neuroblastomas that have diminished BMAL1 expression, and reexpression of ectopic BMAL1 in neuroblastoma cell lines suppresses their clonogenicity. Further, ectopic MYC profoundly alters oscillation of glucose metabolism and perturbs glutaminolysis. Our results demonstrate an unsuspected link between oncogenic transformation and circadian and metabolic dysrhythmia, which we surmise to be advantageous for cancer.
Candida albicans is frequently detected with heavy infection of Streptococcus mutans in plaque-biofilms from children affected with early-childhood caries, a prevalent and costly oral disease. The presence of C. albicans enhances S. mutans growth within biofilms, yet the chemical interactions associated with bacterial accumulation remain unclear. Thus, this study was conducted to investigate how microbial products from this cross-kingdom association modulate S. mutans build-up in biofilms. Our data revealed that bacterial-fungal derived conditioned medium (BF-CM) significantly increased the growth of S. mutans and altered biofilm 3D-architecture in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in enlarged and densely packed bacterial cell-clusters (microcolonies). Intriguingly, BF-CM induced S. mutans gtfBC expression (responsible for Gtf exoenzymes production), enhancing Gtf activity essential for microcolony development. Using a recently developed nanoculture system, the data demonstrated simultaneous microcolony growth and gtfB activation in situ by BF-CM. Further metabolites/chromatographic analyses of BF-CM revealed elevated amounts of formate and the presence of Candida-derived farnesol, which is commonly known to exhibit antibacterial activity. Unexpectedly, at the levels detected (25–50 μM), farnesol enhanced S. mutans-biofilm cell growth, microcolony development, and Gtf activity akin to BF-CM bioactivity. Altogether, the data provide new insights on how extracellular microbial products from cross-kingdom interactions stimulate the accumulation of a bacterial pathogen within biofilms.
Summary The intricate connection between the circadian clock and metabolism remains poorly understood. We used high temporal resolution metabolite profiling to explore clock regulation of mouse liver and cell autonomous metabolism. In liver, ~50% of metabolites were circadian, with enrichment of nucleotide, amino acid, and methylation pathways. In U2 OS cells, 28% were circadian, including amino acids and NAD biosynthesis metabolites. Eighteen metabolites oscillated in both systems and a subset of these in primary hepatocytes. These 18 metabolites were enriched in methylation and amino acid pathways. To assess clock-dependence of these rhythms, we used genetic perturbation. BMAL1 knockdown diminished metabolite rhythms, while CRY1 or CRY2 perturbation generally shortened/lengthened rhythms, respectively. Surprisingly, CRY1 knockdown induced 8 h rhythms in amino acid, methylation, and vitamin metabolites, decoupling metabolite from transcriptional rhythms, with potential impact on nutrient sensing in vivo. These results provide the first comprehensive views of circadian liver and cell autonomous metabolism.
Sleep is an essential biological process that is thought to have a critical role in metabolic regulation. In humans, reduced sleep duration has been associated with risk for metabolic disorders, including weight gain, diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. However, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying effects of sleep loss is only in its nascent stages. In this study we used rat and human models to simulate modern-day conditions of restricted sleep and addressed cross-species consequences via comprehensive metabolite profiling. Serum from sleep-restricted rats was analyzed using polar and nonpolar methods in two independent datasets (n = 10 per study, 3,380 measured features, 407 identified). A total of 38 features were changed across independent experiments, with the majority classified as lipids (18 from 28 identified). In a parallel human study, 92 metabolites were identified as potentially significant, with the majority also classified as lipids (32 of 37 identified). Intriguingly, two metabolites, oxalic acid and diacylglycerol 36:3, were robustly and quantitatively reduced in both species following sleep restriction, and recovered to near baseline levels after sleep restriction (P < 0.05, false-discovery rate < 0.2). Elevated phospholipids were also noted after sleep restriction in both species, as well as metabolites associated with an oxidizing environment. In addition, polar metabolites reflective of neurotransmitters, vitamin B3, and gut metabolism were elevated in sleep-restricted humans. These results are consistent with induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and disruptions of the circadian clock. The findings provide a potential link between known pathologies of reduced sleep duration and metabolic dysfunction, and potential biomarkers for sleep loss.
Recent studies have shown that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can induce a robust increase in lipid synthesis which is critical for the success of infection. In mammalian cells the central precursor for lipid biosynthesis, cytosolic acetyl CoA (Ac-CoA), is produced by ATPcitrate lyase (ACLY) from mitochondria-derived citrate or by acetylCoA synthetase short-chain family member 2 (ACSS2) from acetate. It has been reported that ACLY is the primary enzyme involved in making cytosolic Ac-CoA in cells with abundant nutrients. However, using CRISPR/Cas9 technology, we have shown that ACLY is not essential for HCMV growth and virally induced lipogenesis. Instead, we found that in HCMV-infected cells glucose carbon can be used for lipid synthesis by both ACLY and ACSS2 reactions. Further, the ACSS2 reaction can compensate for the loss of ACLY. However, in ACSS2-KO human fibroblasts both HCMV-induced lipogenesis from glucose and viral growth were sharply reduced. This reduction suggests that glucose-derived acetate is being used to synthesize cytosolic Ac-CoA by ACSS2. Previous studies have not established a mechanism for the production of acetate directly from glucose metabolism. Here we show that HCMV-infected cells produce more glucose-derived pyruvate, which can be converted to acetate through a nonenzymatic mechanism.human cytomegalovirus | ACLY | ACSS2 | acetate | Acetyl-CoA
Purpose The aim of this study was to analyze the seminal plasma of patients with idiopathic/male factor infertility and healthy controls with proven fertility by NMR spectroscopy, with a hope of establishing difference in biomarker profiles, if any, between the groups. Methods A total of 103 subjects visiting the infertility clinic of Manipal University with normozoospermic parameters, oligozoospermia, asthenozoospermia, azoospermia and teratozoospermia were included. Semen characteristics were analysed by standard criteria. Seminal plasma was subjected to NMR spectroscopy at a 700 MHz
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a life-threatening disease in humans caused by Plasmodium falciparum, leading to high mortality. Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) infection in C57Bl/6 mice induces pathologic symptoms similar to that in human CM. However, experimental CM incidence in mice is variable, and there are no known metabolic correlates/ fingerprints for the animals that develop CM. Here, we have used 1 H NMR-based metabonomics to investigate the metabolic changes in the mice with CM with respect to the mice that have noncerebral malaria (NCM) of the same batchmates with identical genetic backgrounds and infected simultaneously. The metabolic profile of the infected mice (both CM and NCM) was separately compared with the metabolite profile of uninfected control mice of same genetic background. The objective of this study was to search for metabolic changes/fingerprints of CM and identify the pathways that might be differentially altered in mice that succumbed to CM. The results show that brain, liver, and sera exhibit unique metabolic fingerprints for CM over NCM mice. Some of the major fingerprints are increased level of triglycerides, VLDL-cholesterol in sera of CM mice, and decreased levels of glutamine in the sera concomitant with increased levels of glutamine in the brain of the mice with CM. Moreover, glycerophosphocholine is decreased in both the brain and the liver of animals with CM, and myo-inositol and histamine are increased in the liver of CM mice. The metabolic fingerprints in brain, sera, and liver of mice with CM point toward perturbation in the ammonia detoxification pathway and perturbation in lipid and choline metabolism in CM specifically. The study helps us to understand the severity of CM over NCM and in unrevealing the specific metabolic pathways that are compromised in CM.
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