Orchiopexy using a pre-scrotal approach is a viable alternative for palpable cryptorchid testes that can be preoperatively mobilized into the scrotum. Cryptorchid testes that are palpable but cannot be moved to the scrotum can be managed by the pre-scrotal approach alone in 40% of cases or with an additional groin incision in 60%.
Objective: To evaluate the long-term effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on sexual functions and behavior in men with heterosexual partners. Materials and methods: A total of 602 participants completed an online questionnaire, shared via social networks, between November 20 and December 20, 2020. Pre-pandemic sexual intercourse frequency, International Erectile Dysfunction Index (IIEF-15) score, intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT) score, and activities during sexual intercourse were compared to the ones during the pandemic. In addition, the effects of various variables on participants’ sexual functions were evaluated and analyzed according to age groups. Results: The mean number of weekly sexual intercourse during the pandemic was 1.7+1.7, which was significantly lower than in the pre-pandemic period (p < 0.001). The ED score was significantly lower during the pandemic (p < 0.001) compared to the pre-pandemic period, however orgasmic function (p = 0.016), sexual intercourse satisfaction (p < 0.001), general satisfaction (p < 0.001), and PEDT scores (p = 0.004) were significantly higher. There was no significant difference in IELT before and during the pandemic (p = 0.391). Full-time employment and low education level were risk factors for developing ED and PE. The negative affect of the pandemic on sexual life was most prominent in the > 65 age group. Although kissing, oral and anal sex, and face-to-face sex positions decreased during the pandemic in all age groups, kissing and face-to-face sex positions remained the most preferred sexual behavior pattern (p = 0.002). There was no reduction in risky sexual behavior in the majority of the participants. Conclusions: At the end of one year with COVID-19, a decrease in erectile function and an increase in PE incidence were observed in men. Despite this, there was an increase in sexual desire and satisfaction. Although there were some changes in sexual behavior, the majority of pre-pandemic habits continued.
The relationship between erectile dysfunction (ED) and chronic renal failure (CRF) has been reported in several studies. This study aimed to investigate whether the chronic use of sildenafil could enhance the erectile capacity in CRF-induced rats. In addition, we assessed the effect of that treatment on certain molecules, which have been suggested to play crucial roles in erectile physiology and CRF-related ED as well. Three groups of animals were utilized: (1) age-matched control rats, (2) CRF-induced rats, (3) CRF-induced rats treated with chronic administration of sildenafil (5 mg kg−1 p.o. for 6 weeks [treatment started after 6 weeks of CRF induction]). At 3 months, all animals underwent cavernosal nerve stimulation (CNS) to assess erectile function. Penile tissue advanced glycation end products (AGE's)/5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde, malondialdehyde (MDA), cGMP (ELISA), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and neuronal NOS (nNOS) (Western blot) analyses were performed in all rat groups. CRF-induced rats had a significant decrease in erectile function when compared to control rats (P < 0.05). The increase in both intracavernosal pressure (ICP) and area under the curve of CRF-induced rats treated with sildenafil (Group 3) was greater than CRF-induced rats (Group 2). Additionally, sildenafil treatment decreased AGE, MDA and iNOS levels, while it preserved nNOS and cGMP contents in CRF-induced penile tissue. Decreased AGE, MDA, iNOS and increased nNOS, cGMP levels at the sildenafil-treated group increased both ICP and Total ICP to CNS, which led to improve erectile function in CRF-induced rats. The results of the present study revealed the therapeutic effect of chronic sildenafil administration on erectile function in CRF-induced rats.
Adrenal pseudocysts are rare, nonfunctional, asymptomatic cystic masses that originate from the adrenal gland and are usually located in the suprarenal area. They are usually incidentally discovered during imaging, but diagnosis can be challenging because they are similar to benign and malignant cystic lesions of the adrenal gland and adjacent organs. We describe a giant, adrenal hemorrhagic pseudocyst that was atypically located, extending from the middle to the lower poles of the kidney, admixed with a renal cortical cyst.
Paratesticular liposarcomas (PLSs) are mostly painless, slow-growing and extremely rare inguinal or scrotal masses. Reports of approximately 270 cases have been published in the literature so far, but only a few of them contain information about giant PLSs exceeding 10 cm in size. Correct diagnosis and treatment is important as PLSs tend to cause local relapses and distant metastases. Here, we aimed to present, and evaluate a dedifferentiated (24 cm), and a well-differentiated (12 cm) giant PLS in the light of the literature data.
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