The purpose of this study was to investigate a group of Brazilian dental students' knowledge about HIV infection, the infection control measures utilized by the dental students, and students' attitudes towards treating HIV/AIDS patients. The study population consisted of 250 dental students from Universidade Federal da Bahia, Brazil, who were treating patients in clinics of the university and extra-mural rotations at the time of the study. The survey instrument was a self-administered questionnaire which consisted of 32 pre-coded questions and two open-ended questions. The overall response rate to the questionnaire was 54%. More than 80% of respondents (N = 135) considered every dental patient a potential HIV carrier. A majority of the students were aware of the association between HIV and Kaposi's sarcoma (92.5%), oral candidiasis (90.3%) and oral hairy leukoplakia (52.7%). A gender difference was observed in students' knowledge of oral manifestations and infection control measures, with females having better knowledge than males (p < 0.05). Because of certain inadequacies in knowledge and infection control practices among respondents, a curriculum focusing on the management of HIV/AIDS, including infection control and legal issues is recommended.
A contributing factor to the failure of trials of neuroprotectants in acute ischemic stroke may be the differing vulnerability to ischemia of white compared with gray matter. To address this issue, we determined to establish the existence of potentially viable tissue in white matter and its evolution to infarction or salvage in both gray and white matter compartments in patients with ischemic stroke. Twenty-seven patients (mean age, 73.4 years) at a median of 16.5 hours after symptom onset were studied using the hypoxic marker 18F-misonidazole with positron emission tomography (PET). Tissue was segmented using an magnetic resonance probabilistic map. Although there was a greater volume of initially "at-risk tissue" in gray matter (58.3 cm3, 29.9-93.0 cm3 than white matter (42.0 cm3, 15.8-74.0 cm3; p <0.001) at the time of PET imaging, a higher proportion of this was still potentially viable in white matter (41.4%, 4.6-74.5%) than in gray matter (23.6%, 3.2-61.1%; p <0.05). However, a similar proportion in each compartment spontaneously survived. These data provide evidence for the existence of potentially salvageable tissue in human white matter and is consistent with it having a similar or even greater resistance to ischemia than gray matter. For the latter possibility, alternative therapeutic strategies may be required for its salvage.
Factors associated with increased mortality and prolonged length of stay in an adult intensive care unit Fatores associados à maior mortalidade e tempo de internação prolongado em uma unidade de terapia intensiva de adultos
Patients in intensive care unit are prescribed large numbers of drugs, highlighting the need to study potential Drug-Drug Interactions in this environment. The aim of this study was to delineate the prevalence and risk of potential drug-drug interactions between medications administered to patients in an ICU. This cross-sectional observational study was conducted during 12 months, in an adult ICU of a teaching hospital. Inclusion criteria were: prescriptions with 2 or more drugs of patients admitted to the ICU for > 24 hours and age of ≥18 years. Potential Drug-Drug Interactions were quantified and classified through Micromedex TM database. The 369 prescriptions included in this study had 205 different drugs, with an average of 13.04 ± 4.26 (mean ± standard deviation) drugs per prescription. Potential Drug-Drug Interactions were identified in 89% of these, with an average of 5.00 ± 5.06 interactions per prescription. Of the 405 different pairs of potentially interacting drugs identified, moderate and major interactions were present in 74% and 67% of prescriptions, respectively. The most prevalent interaction was between dipyrone and enoxaparin (35.8%), though its clinical occurrence was not observed in this study. The number of potential Drug-Drug Interactions showed significant positive correlations with the length of stay in the intensive care unit, and with the number of prescribed drugs. Acknowledging the high potential for Drug-Drug Interactions in the ICU represents an important step toward improving patient safety and best therapy results.Uniterms: Potential drug-drug interactions. Intensive care unit. Patient safety. University hospitals.
Mortality from severe TBI is high in Latin American LMIC, although the rate of favorable recovery is similar to that of high-income countries. Demographic factors such as race and study site played an outsized role in predicting outcome; further research is required to understand these associations.
The imaging and clinical examination (ICE) algorithm used in the Benchmark Evidence from South American Trials: Treatment of Intracranial Pressure (BEST TRIP) randomized controlled trial is the only prospectively investigated clinical protocol for traumatic brain injury management without intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring. As the default literature standard, it warrants careful evaluation. We present the ICE protocol in detail and analyze the demographics, outcome, treatment intensity, frequency of intervention usage, and related adverse events in the ICE-protocol cohort. The 167 ICE protocol patients were young (median 29 years) with a median Glasgow Coma Scale motor score of 4 but with anisocoria or abnormal pupillary reactivity in 40%. This protocol produced outcomes not significantly different from those randomized to the monitor-based protocol (favorable 6-month extended Glasgow Outcome Score in 39%; 41% mortality rate). Agents commonly employed to treat suspected intracranial hypertension included low-/moderate-dose hypertonic saline (72%) and mannitol (57%), mild hyperventilation (adjusted partial pressure of carbon dioxide 30-35 mm Hg in 73%), and pressors to maintain cerebral perfusion (62%). High-dose hyperosmotics or barbiturates were uncommonly used. Adverse event incidence was low and comparable to the BEST TRIP monitored group. Although this protocol should produce similar/acceptable results under circumstances comparable to those in the trial, influences such as longer pre-hospital times and non-specialist transport personnel, plus an intensive care unit model of aggressive physician-intensive care by small groups of neurotrauma-focused intensivists, which differs from most high-resource models, support caution in expecting the same results in dissimilar settings. Finally, this protocol's ICP-titration approach to suspected intracranial hypertension (vs. crisis management for monitored ICP) warrants further study.
BackgroundThe early postoperative period is critical for surgical patients. SOFA, SAPS 3 and APACHE II are prognostic scores widely used to predict mortality in ICU patients. This study aimed to evaluate these index tests for their prognostic accuracy for intra-ICU and in-hospital mortalities as target conditions in patients admitted to ICU after urgent or elective surgeries and to test whether they aid in decision-making. The process comprised the assessment of discrimination through analysis of the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves and calibration of the prognostic models for the target conditions. After, the clinical relevance of applying them was evaluated through the measurement of the net benefit of their use in the clinical decision.ResultsIndex tests were found to discriminate regular for both target conditions with a poor calibration (C statistics—intra-ICU mortality AUROCs: APACHE II 0.808, SAPS 3 0.821 and SOFA 0.797/in-hospital mortality AUROCs: APACHE II 0.772, SAPS 3 0.790 and SOFA 0.742). Calibration assessment revealed a weak correlation between the observed and expected number of cases in several thresholds of risk, calculated by each model, for both tested outcomes. The net benefit analysis showed that all score’s aggregate value in the clinical decision when the calculated probabilities of death ranged between 10 and 40%.ConclusionsIn this study, we observed that the tested ICU prognostic scores are fair tools for intra-ICU and in-hospital mortality prediction in a cohort of postoperative surgical patients. Also, they may have some potential to be used as ancillary data to support decision-making by physicians and families regarding the level of therapeutic investment and palliative care.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (10.1186/s13613-019-0488-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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