Depression is a disabling illness which increases the risk of suicide. The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a rise in fear, anxiety, stress, and depression among the population: of these, university undergraduates from countries severely affected by COVID-19 are some of the most vulnerable of all, as they face strict lockdown measures and have fewer resources to cope with it. The aim of this study was to analyze the levels of fear of COVID-19, stress, anxiety, and depression during lockdown among undergraduates from Ecuador, and to test these possible predictors of depression using a model taken from our study of the scientific literature. A total of 640 undergraduates (72% women) between 18 and 47 years old (M = 21.69; S.D = 4.093) were surveyed. The resulting mean levels found for stress, anxiety, and depression were above levels considered non-pathological. Women showed higher levels of fear of COVID-19 than men. The statistical prediction for depression showed a good fit. This depression could be related: both directly and positively by fear of COVID-19 and stress, and indirectly, as a result of these two factors, positively mediated by anxiety. Our study concludes by highlighting the important role that the complex relationships between fear, stress, and anxiety can play in the development of depression symptoms and how they can be taken into account in programs aimed at preventing and alleviating this disorder. We propose some general measures for reducing fear of COVID-19 and stress and suggest that specific programs be designed to control and overcome anxiety among undergraduates.
Studying the predictors of cyberbullying is of great research interest; however, little is known about how these relationships function in different ethno-cultural groups within a similar context. Our study examines levels of cyber victimization, cyber aggression, self-esteem, empathy, and social skills as possible predictors of cyberbullying in various ethno-cultural groups: Moroccan, Romanian, Colombian, Ecuadorian, and Spanish. A multicultural sample that was representative of students in their first through fourth year of Compulsory Secondary Education in Spain (N = 25,684, age M = 13.94; SD = 1.396) participated by completing an online self-report survey. No differences were found between levels of cyber aggression according to ethno-cultural group. However, there were differences between the levels of cyber victimization between Romanians and Spaniards. Multiple linear regression analyses performed for each of the ethno-cultural groups with respect to cyber aggression and cyber victimization revealed that the presence and weight of the explanatory factors were different according to ethno-cultural origin. The best predictor of cyber victimization in the five ethno-cultural groups was cyber aggression, and vice versa. Among Columbian, Romanian, and Spanish students, cyber victimization was also predicted by self-esteem, empathy, or social skills, with predictive power of these variables differing across ethno-cultural groups. However, these variables were not predictive of cyber victimization among Moroccan or Ecuadorian students. Cyber aggression was also predicted in all ethno-cultural groups by self-esteem, empathy, or social skills. Common and unique patterns of prediction are presented and discussed to improve psychoeducational programs that prevent and mitigate cyberbullying.
The present study contrasts personal bullying with ethnic-cultural bullying. A representative pluricultural sample from a Spanish adolescent population of Secondary Education took part in the study (N = 27369). The sample filled in the EBIPQ to measure personal bullying. Additionally, they filled in an adaptation of this questionnaire to measure the ethnic-cultural bullying: the EBIPQ-ECD. The EBIPQ-ECD validation showed optimal psychometric properties and a bidimensional structure: ethnic-cultural victimization and ethnic-cultural aggression. The same roles of participation in personal bullying —aggressor, victim, bully/victim, non-involved— were observed in ethnic-cultural bullying, but they did not coincide with each other in a considerable part. Therefore, we concluded that ethnic-cultural bullying is a different phenomenon from personal bullying, with the possibility of certain dynamism existing between both. To prevent and mitigate ethnic-cultural bullying, educational inferences are proposed. We also recommend the use of the EBIPQ-ECD as a tool to evaluate and detect ethnic-cultural aggressions and victimization.
Although bullying and cyberbullying have been widely studied in diverse geographical areas, the number of studies in isolated regions, located in rainforests such as the Peruvian Amazonia, is low. Most research has been conducted in wealthy, Western countries, although disadvantaged areas are usually the most affected by various problems. Thus, the aims of this study were to validate bullying and cyberbullying measurement instruments among adolescents in the Peruvian Amazonia, to determine the prevalence rates of bullying and cyberbullying among this population, and to examine how bullying and cyberbullying relate to self-esteem, empathy, and social skills. The sample included 607 students from the region of Loreto (Peruvian Amazonia) who completed self-report questionnaires. Both questionnaires used in the sample were found to have good psychometric properties. Results showed that bullying and cyberbullying are prevalent among teenagers in the Amazonia. Low self-esteem and high affective empathy predicted bullying victimization. Being a bully was related to high assertiveness. Being a bully-victim was related to low self-esteem and low assertiveness. Cybervictims showed higher cognitive empathy. Cyberbullies showed higher affective empathy in comparison to uninvolved adolescents. Having low self-esteem and higher affective empathy were related to being a cyberbully/victim. This study provides a validated questionnaire that can be used for research and practice in the Amazonia. Based on the current results, tailored anti-bullying and anti-cyberbullying interventions with components focused on self-esteem, empathy, and social skills should be implemented in Peruvian secondary schools.
Bullying and discrimination seriously damage the development and health of adolescents with non-heteronormative sexual orientation. Adolescents from sexual minorities are more likely to be the object of bullying. This research aims to know more about the prevalence, frequency, and some associated factors and predictors of homophobic victimization in adolescents, depending on their sexual orientation. A total of 820 Secondary Schools students took part in this study (average age = 14.87; SD = 1.72; 48.3% were boys and 51.7% were girls) by filling in a self-report questionnaire. The results showed that adolescents suffer homophobic victimization, regardless of their sexual orientation; however, homosexuals and bisexuals suffered it more frequently than heterosexuals. Homophobic victimization could be associated—in heterosexuals and people with doubts about their sexual orientation, positively with bullying victimization, bullying aggression and cyberbullying aggression. Homophobic victimization could be predicted—in heterosexuals, positively due to self-depreciation, and negatively due to communication and relationship skills; and in homosexuals and bisexuals, positively, because of affective empathy. The results are discussed and new lines of study and intervention are proposed.
A B S T R A C TThis study examined a structural model which integrated personal and cultural victimisation in order to identify the effects of victimisation on emotions and personal and cultural self-esteem. A sample of 1,185 adolescents from 13 secondary schools in England (n = 322) and Spain (n = 863) was recruited. Participants completed a battery of self-report questionnaires. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) conducted regarding the initial model and then Strucutural Equations Modelling (SEM). Cultural victimisation had an indirect negative effect on cultural self-esteem and in consequence on emotional state, mediated by personal victimisation and the negative impact it produced on personal self-esteem. Only for the cultural majority did the percentage of their presence constitute a mediator variable between being a victim of cultural victimisation and the effect on cultural self-esteem. The results are discussed in relation to the extant literature and the implications for the intervention/prevention work to deal with victimisation and discrimination in multi-cultural schools. © 2015 Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. on behalf of Colegio Oficial de Psicólogos de Madrid. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). Victimización entre iguales en contextos multiculturales: un modelo estructural de sus efectos sobre la autoestima y las emociones R E S U M E NEl estudio examina un modelo estructural que integra la victimización personal y cultural con el fin de identificar los efectos de la victimización en las emociones y la autoestima personal y cultural. Participó una muestra de 1.185 adolescentes de 13 escuelas secundarias en Inglaterra (n = 322) y España (n = 863). Los participantes cumplimentaron una batería de cuestionarios de autoinforme. Se llevó a cabo un análisis factorial confirmatorio (CFA) sobre el modelo inicial y luego un modelado de ecuaciones estructurales (SEM). La victimización cultural tuvo un efecto negativo indirecto sobre la autoestima cultural y en consecuencia sobre el estado emocional, mediado por la victimización personal y el impacto negativo que produce en la autoestima personal. Sólo para la cultura mayoritaria el porcentaje de su presencia constituye una variable mediadora entre ser una víctima de la persecución cultural y el efecto en la autoestima cultural. Los resultados se discuten en relación a la literatura existente y a las implicaciones para el trabajo de intervención/prevención para hacer frente a la victimización y a la discriminación en las escuelas multiculturales.
The aim of this study is to discover the prevalence of cyberbullying among adolescents from Ecuador and Spain, and identify any differences by gender, school year, and ethnic-cultural background. A culturally-diverse group of 33,303 adolescents took part in the study (Ecuador = 10,918; Spain = 22,385). Our results show that in Ecuador, one in four, and in Spain, one in five teenagers were involved in cyberbullying. In both countries, teenagers in the higher school years were more commonly involved. Significant differences in gender and role of involvement were detected in both countries. In Ecuador, no differences were noted between the different ethnic-cultural groups as regards to the roles of involvement in cyberbullying. However, in Spain, these differences do exist. In this paper, these findings are discussed, and proposals for how to prevent cyberbullying are given.
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