PURPOSE:To present fundamental anatomical aspects and technical skills necessary to urethra and urinary bladder catheterization in female mice and rats. METHODS: Urethral and bladder catheterization has been widely utilized for carcinogenesis and cancer research and still remains very useful in several applications: from toxicological purposes as well as inflammatory and infectious conditions to functional aspects as bladder dynamics and vesicoureteral reflux, among many others. RESULTS: Animal models are in the center of translational research and those involving rodents are the most important nowadays due to several advantages including human reproducibility, easy handling and low cost. CONCLUSIONS: Although technical and anatomical pearls for rodent urethral and bladder access are presented as tackles to the advancement of lower urinary tract preclinical investigation in a broaden sight, restriction to female animals hampers the male microenvironment, demanding future advances. Key words: Urinary Tract. Rodent Diseases. Anatomy. Rats.
RESUMO OBJETIVO:Apresentar aspectos anatômicos fundamentais e habilidades técnicas necessárias para cateterismo da uretra e bexiga em ratos e camundongos fêmeas. MÉTODOS: Cateterismo vesical tem sido amplamente utilizado na pesquisa do câncer e carcinogênese, além de várias outras aplicações, desde fins toxicológicos, condições inflamatórias e infecciosas até aspectos funcionais como a dinâmica vesical e refluxo vesico-ureteral, entre muitos outros. RESULTADOS: Os modelos animais estão no centro da investigação de translação e os roedores são os mais importantes devido a várias vantagens, incluindo reprodutibilidade humana, o fácil manuseio e baixo custo. CONCLUSÕES: Apesar de permitir o desenvolvimento da investigação pré-clínica do trato urinário inferior, o modelo se restringe aos animais do sexo feminino, de modo que avanços futuros são necessários. Descritores: Sistema Urinário. Doenças dos Roedores. Anatomia. Ratos.
Anatomical features of the urethra and urinary bladder catheterization in female mice and rats. An essential translational tool
Objectives. To standardize digital rectal examination (DRE) and set how it correlates with the comprehensive evaluation of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Methods. After scaled standardization of DRE based on fingertips graphical schema: 10 cubic centimeters—cc for each fingertip prostate surface area on DRE, four randomly selected senior medical students examined 48 male patients presenting with LUTS in an outpatient clinical setting, totaling 12 DRE each. Standardized DRE, international prostate symptom score (IPSS), serum PSA, transabdominal ultrasound (US), urodynamic evaluation, and postvoid residue were compared. Results. The mean and median PVs were US—45 and 34.7 cc (5.5 to 155) and DRE—39 and 37.5 cc (15 to 80). Comparing DRE and US by simple linear regression: US PV = 11.93 + 0.85 × (DRE PV); P = 0.0009. Among patients classified as nonobstructed, inconclusive, and obstructed, the US PVs were 29.8, 43.2, and 53.6 cc (P = 0.033), and DRE PVs were 20, 35, and 60 cc (P = 0.026), respectively. Conclusion. This is the first attempt to DRE standardization focusing on teaching-learning process, establishing a linear correlation of DRE and US PVs with only 12 examinations by inexperienced hands, satisfactorily validated in an outpatient clinical setting.
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