This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for treatment of postoperative pain in patients who underwent cardiac surgery. In addition, we sought to determine whether TENS would be related to improved pulmonary function and muscle electrical activity in this patient population. Forty-five patients, 32 males and 13 females, aged 41-74 years were randomly allocated to receive TENS (n=23) or sham treatment (n=22) during 4 h on the third postoperative day. A 0-10 visual analogic scale was used to assess pain; lung function was evaluated by spirometry and surface electromyography (n=10 in each group) was used to quantify electrically-induced muscle activity (trapezius and pectoralis major). TENS was associated with significant reductions on spontaneous and cough-induced postoperative pain as compared to sham (P<0.05). There was also improvement in chest wall-pulmonary mechanics after TENS with proportional increases in tidal volume and vital capacity (P<0.05). In addition, electrical activity of both muscle groups was enhanced after TENS, but not post sham (P<0.05). TENS is a valuable strategy to alleviate postoperative pain following cardiac surgery with positive effects on pulmonary ventilatory function and electrical activity of thoracic and girdle muscles.
When the SF-36 was administered no changes in QOL were detected between the groups because it is an asymptomatic chronic disease. The SF-36 did not properly assess emotional aspects in our case series of hypertensive patients that had high behavior variability. Group A showed lower quality sex life; however, this was not related to the number and type of medication used.
Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction harbingers adverse prognosis in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Although conventional two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) is limited for RV systolic function quantitation, RV strain can be a useful tool. The diagnostic and prognostic impact of 2DE speckle-tracking RV longitudinal strain was evaluated, including other 2DE systolic indexes, in a group of PAH patients without severe impairment of functional capacity, chronic pulmonary thromboembolism or left ventricular dysfunction. Sixty-six group I PAH patients, 67 % NYHA functional class I or II (none in IV) were studied by 2DE to obtain: RV fractional area change, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, RV myocardial performance index, tissue Doppler tricuspid annulus systolic velocity. Global, free wall (RVFreeWSt) and septal RV longitudinal systolic strain were obtained. RV ejection fraction by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR-RVEF) was also assessed. All patients were followed up to 3.9 years (mean 3.3 years). Combined endpoints were hospitalization for worsening PAH or cardiovascular death. Among all the 2DE indexes of RV systolic function, RVFreeWSt exhibited the best correlation with CMR-RVEF (r = 0.83; p < 0.005). Combined endpoints occurred in 15 (22.7 %) patients (6 hospitalizations and 9 deaths). Multivariate analysis identified RVFreeWSt ≤-14 % as the only 2DE independent variable associated with combined endpoints [HR 4.66 (1.25-17.37); p < 0.05]. We conclude that RVFreeWSt may be a suitable non-geometric 2DE surrogate of CMR-RVEF in PAH patients, constituting a powerful independent predictor of long-term outcome in this cohort with relatively preserved functional capacity.
Neste trabalho apresentam-se os resultados da adaptação do Questionário de Trauma de Infância -forma breve (CTQ-SF) em população portuguesa. As propriedades psicométricas do instrumentoA correspondência relativa a este artigo deverá ser enviada para:
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.