Sixty nosocomial infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii resistant to aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, quinolones, penicillins, monobactams, and imipenem were treated with colistin (one patient had two infections that are included as two different cases). The infections were pneumonia (33% of patients), urinary tract infection (20%), primary bloodstream infection (15%), central nervous system infection (8%), peritonitis (7%), catheter-related infection (7%), and otitis media (2%). A good outcome occurred for 35 patients (58%), and three patients died within the first 48 hours of treatment. The poorest results were observed in cases of pneumonia: only five (25%) of 20 had a good outcome. A good outcome occurred for four of five patients with central nervous system infections, although no intrathecal treatment was given. The main adverse effect of treatment was renal failure; 27% of patients with initially normal renal function had renal failure, and renal function worsened in 58% of patients with abnormal baseline creatinine levels. Colistin may be a good therapeutic option for the treatment of severe infections caused by multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii.
In October 1986, 7 to 22 days after a meeting at a farm in Paraíba state, 26 individuals presented with a febrile illness associated with bilateral eyelid and lower limb edema, mild hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy and, occasionally a skin rash. A 11-year-old boy exhibited atrial premature complexes and a 74-year-old patient developed acute heart failure. In two patients hospitalized in São Paulo city, acute Chagas' disease was diagnosed by the demonstration of circulating Trypanosoma cruzi. At autopsy in a fatal case, acute Chagas' cardiomyopathy was demonstrated. Xenodiagnosis were positive in 9 out of 14 tested patients. A specific IgG immune response was found in all patients and specific IgM antibodies were identified in 20 out of 22 tested patients. A epidemiological survey showed the existence of Triatoma brasiliensis in the outbuildings of this farm, but none in the house where most of the guests stayed. A high rate of infection with Trypanosoma cruzi was found in opossums. These observations together with those related to the food consumed by the patients, lead the authors to suggest that the human infections resulted from oral contamination probably originating from naturally infected marsupials in the area or crushed infected bugs.
Over a period of 7 months, 151 consecutive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus blood isolates were evaluated. None was community acquired. Twenty (13%) were susceptible to four or more antimicrobials, and 95% of these isolates were identified as SCCmec type IV. Molecular typing demonstrated four patterns, with one predominant pattern. Although usually community acquired, SCCmec type IV in our setting is clearly nosocomial.
Background & Aims-The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of pegylated-interferon-α-2a (PEG-IFN) have not been described in HCV/HIV co-infected patients. We sought to estimate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of PEG-IFN and determine whether these parameters predict treatment outcome.
The pandemic novel influenza A (H1N1) infection was considered widespread in Brazil on July 16, 2009. Since then, 46,810 cases of acute respiratory syndrome have been reported in Brazil, most of them concentrated in São Paulo. Through September 16, we have confirmed 9,249 cases of novel influenza A H1N1in Brazil, including 699 deaths. The mortality rate observed in Brazil is 0.47/100,000 inhabitants and varies according to region. In this period, São Paulo registered 3733 cases (40.3% of the total) of novel influenza A (H1N1) infection and 327 deaths, reflecting a mortality rate of 0.79/100,000 inhabitants.The Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (HC) is a reference center for H1N1 cases in São Paulo. During the winter of 2009, 472 patients in this hospital were diagnosed with H1N1 infection; of these, 210 were admitted, and 16 died. To control this pandemic and to provide adequate care for these patients, the Hospital das Clínicas implemented “bundles” including prevention strategies, an epidemiologic surveillance service, availability of fast diagnosis, antiviral treatment and training of staff.The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the epidemiologic features of novel human influenza A (H1N1) infection in the Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo during the winter period of the 2009 pandemic.
SUMMARYThe objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors associated with HCV infection in a group of HIV seropositive patients. We analyzed the medical records of 1,457 patients. All patients were tested for HCV infection by third generation ELISA. Whenever possible, a sample of the positive patients was also tested for HCV by PCR. HCV positive patients were analyzed according to their risk factors for both infections. The prevalence of anti-HCV positive patients was 17.7% (258 patients). Eighty-two (82) of these patients were also tested by PCR and 81 were positive for HCV virus (98%). One hundred fifty-one (58.5%) were intravenous drug users (IDU); 42 (16.3%) were sexual partners of HIV patients; 23 (8.9%) were homosexual males; 12 (4.7%) had received blood transfusion; 61 (17.5%) had promiscuous sexual habits; 14 (5.4%) denied any risk factor; 12 (4.7%) were sexual partners of IDU. Two hundred four patients mentioned only one risk factor. Among them, 28 (10.9%) were sexual partners of HIVpositive patients. Although intravenous drug use was the most important risk factor for co-infection, sexual transmission seemed to contribute to the high HCV seroprevalence in this group of patients.
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