We explored the changes in viability and lipid profile occurring in cancer cells, murine melanoma cells (B16F10 cells) and human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa cells), when exposed to 24 h-treatments with an n-3 PUFA-rich oil obtained by supercritical extraction with CO2 from Mugil cephalus processed roe (bottarga). The composition of the major lipid classes of bottarga oil was determined by the (13)C NMR technique. Reversed-phase HPLC with DAD/ELSD detection was performed to analyze cells' total fatty acid profile and the levels of phospholipids, total/free cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and cholesteryl esters. Cell-based fluorescent measurements of intracellular membranes and lipid droplets were performed on bottarga oil-treated cells using the Nile red staining technique. The treatments of cancer cells with bottarga oil reduced the viability and affected the fatty acid profile, with a significant n-3 PUFA increase in treated cells. Mullet roe oil uptake modulated the cancer cell lipid composition, inducing a remarkable incorporation of health beneficial n-3 PUFA in the polar and neutral lipid fractions. Bottarga oil treatment influenced the synthesis of intracellular membranes and accumulation of cytoplasmic lipid droplets in cancer cells.
The stability of extra virgin olive oils is mainly due to their relatively low fatty acids unsaturation and to the antioxidant activity of some of the unsaponifiable components. We studied the activity of alpha-tocopherol in extra virgin olive oil in its natural state, using new and simple oxidizing conditions in "thin layer" and "bulk phase". Oxidation time course was monitored at 37 degrees C or 75 degrees C. A storage test was also performed. Two parameters were evaluated: depletion of alpha-tocopherol and formation of PUFA hydroperoxides, measured as conjugated dienes (CD) and peroxide value. The value of complex polyphenols was also measured. alpha-Tocopherol concentration decreased in function of time and temperature and showed a strong inverse correlation with the increase of CD. When alpha-tocopherol reached a "threshold value" of 60-70 mg/kg, a significant increase of CD formation was observed, together with a good correlation between CD and peroxide value. The initial amount of alpha-tocopherol is one of the components that influences oil oxidative susceptibility.
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