We have assembled arrays of approximately 2,400 BAC clones for measurement of DNA copy number across the human genome. The arrays provide precise measurement (s.d. of log2 ratios=0.05-0.10) in cell lines and clinical material, so that we can reliably detect and quantify high-level amplifications and single-copy alterations in diploid, polyploid and heterogeneous backgrounds.
We constructed a tiling resolution array consisting of 32,433 overlapping BAC clones covering the entire human genome. This increases our ability to identify genetic alterations and their boundaries throughout the genome in a single comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) experiment. At this tiling resolution, we identified minute DNA alterations not previously reported. These alterations include microamplifications and deletions containing oncogenes, tumor-suppressor genes and new genes that may be associated with multiple tumor types. Our findings show the need to move beyond conventional marker-based genome comparison approaches, that rely on inference of continuity between interval markers. Our submegabase resolution tiling set for array CGH (SMRT array) allows comprehensive assessment of genomic integrity and thereby the identification of new genes associated with disease.Identification of chromosomal imbalances and variation in DNA copy-number is essential to our understanding of disease mechanisms and pathogenesis. Array CGH 1 or matrix CGH 2 offers the highest resolution for practical genome-wide detection of chromosomal alterations. This technique is derived from the concept of conventional CGH 3 , which has contributed greatly to the molecular characterization of both somatic and constitutional genomic DNA mutations over the last decade 4-6 . The primary limitation of conventional CGH is its resolution (∼20 Mb), as this method detects segmental copy-number changes on metaphase chromosomes 3 . In array CGH, the metaphase chromosome spread is replaced by BACs, PACs or YACs containing human DNA as targets, increasing the resolution to the distance between the selected marker DNA clones 1,2 . Genome screening using array CGH has great potential in the characterization of numerous chromosomal disorders.Efforts to construct DNA arrays spanning the human genome consisted of spotting 2,460 (ref. 7) or 3,500 (ref. 8) marker BAC clones representing the sequenced genome at an average interval of ∼1 Mb.These studies showed that sufficient target-DNA printing solution could be generated from individual BACs using PCR-based protocols. Because the target product is PCR-derived, it is easily replenishable, obviating the need for multiple rounds of laborious large-scale BAC DNA preparations. These arrays are sensitive enough to detect singlecopy changes, but the technique is limited by the small number of BAC markers representing the genome on the slide, rather than the methodology. Even at this resolution, array CGH is useful for detecting chromosomal aberrations associated with congenital abnormalities and somatic malignancies  .Recent studies focused on higher-density regional arrays for fine mapping and identifying new genes in specific chromosomal regions  . For example, a candidate oncogene for association with
Background: Genomic DNA copy number aberrations are frequent in solid tumors, although the underlying causes of chromosomal instability in tumors remain obscure. Genes likely to have genomic instability phenotypes when mutated (e.g. those involved in mitosis, replication, repair, and telomeres) are rarely mutated in chromosomally unstable sporadic tumors, even though such mutations are associated with some heritable cancer prone syndromes.
DNA microarrays are now widely used to measure expression levels and DNA copy number in biological samples. Ratios of relative abundance of nucleic acids are derived from images of regular arrays of spots containing target genetic material to which fluorescently labeled samples are hybridized. Whereas there are a number of methods in use for the quantification of images, many of the software systems in wide use either encourage or require extensive human interaction at the level of individual spots on arrays. We present a fully automatic system for microarray image quantification. The system automatically locates both subarray grids and individual spots, requiring no user identification of any image coordinates. Ratios are computed based on explicit segmentation of each spot. On a typical image of 6000 spots, the entire process takes less than 20 sec. We present a quantitative assessment of performance on multiple replicates of genome-wide array-based comparative genomic hybridization experiments. By explicitly identifying the pixels in each spot, the system yields more accurate estimates of ratios than systems assuming spot circularity. The software, called UCSF Spot, runs on Windows platforms and is available free of charge for academic use.
The development of solid tumors is associated with acquisition of complex genetic alterations, indicating that failures in the mechanisms that maintain the integrity of the genome contribute to tumor evolution. Thus, one expects that the particular types of genomic alterations seen in tumors reflect underlying failures in maintenance of genetic stability, as well as selection for changes that provide growth advantage. In order to investigate genomic alterations we are using microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH). The computational task is to map and characterize the number and types of copy number alterations present in the tumors, and so define copy number phenotypes and associate them with known biological markers.To utilize the spatial coherence between nearby clones, we use an unsupervised hidden Markov models approach. The clones are partitioned into the states which represent the underlying copy number of the group of clones. The method is demonstrated on the two cell line datasets, one with known copy number alterations. The biological conclusions drawn from the analyses are discussed. r 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
We have used array comparative genomic hybridization to map DNA copy-number changes in 94 patients with cri du chat syndrome who had been carefully evaluated for the presence of the characteristic cry, speech delay, facial dysmorphology, and level of mental retardation (MR). Most subjects had simple deletions involving 5p (67 terminal and 12 interstitial). Genotype-phenotype correlations localized the region associated with the cry to 1.5 Mb in distal 5p15.31, between bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) containing markers D5S2054 and D5S676; speech delay to 3.2 Mb in 5p15.32-15.33, between BACs containing D5S417 and D5S635; and the region associated with facial dysmorphology to 2.4 Mb in 5p15.2-15.31, between BACs containing D5S208 and D5S2887. These results overlap and refine those reported in previous publications. MR depended approximately on the 5p deletion size and location, but there were many cases in which the retardation was disproportionately severe, given the 5p deletion. All 15 of these cases, approximately two-thirds of the severely retarded patients, were found to have copy-number aberrations in addition to the 5p deletion. Restriction of consideration to patients with only 5p deletions clarified the effect of such deletions and suggested the presence of three regions, MRI-III, with differing effect on retardation. Deletions including MRI, a 1.2-Mb region overlapping the previously defined cri du chat critical region but not including MRII and MRIII, produced a moderate level of retardation. Deletions restricted to MRII, located just proximal to MRI, produced a milder level of retardation, whereas deletions restricted to the still-more proximal MRIII produced no discernible phenotype. However, MR increased as deletions that included MRI extended progressively into MRII and MRIII, and MR became profound when all three regions were deleted.
Graphical AbstractHighlights d Deficiency of KDM5 demethylase causes gut dysbiosis and abnormal social behavior in flies d Lactobacillus plantarum administration improves social behavior in kdm5-deficient animals d KDM5 maintains proper immune activity in a transcriptional and microbiota-mediated manner d KDM5 demethylase affects social behavior through the gutmicrobiome-brain axis SUMMARY Loss-of-function mutations in the histone demethylases KDM5A, KDM5B, or KDM5C are found in intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) patients. Here, we use the model organism Drosophila melanogaster to delineate how KDM5 contributes to ID and ASD. We show that reducing KDM5 causes intestinal barrier dysfunction and changes in social behavior that correlates with compositional changes in the gut microbiota. Therapeutic alteration of the dysbiotic microbiota through antibiotic administration or feeding with a probiotic Lactobacillus strain partially rescues the behavioral, lifespan, and cellular phenotypes observed in kdm5-deficient flies. Mechanistically, KDM5 was found to transcriptionally regulate component genes of the immune deficiency (IMD) signaling pathway and subsequent maintenance of host-commensal bacteria homeostasis in a demethylase-dependent manner. Together, our study uses a genetic approach to dissect the role of KDM5 in the gut-microbiome-brain axis and suggests that modifying the gut microbiome may provide therapeutic benefits for ID and ASD patients.
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