Colaizzi's phenomenological methodology can be used reliably to understand people's experiences. This may prove beneficial in the development of therapeutic policy and the provision of patient-centred care.
Knowledge about resilience should be included in the theoretical and practical education of nursing students and experienced nurses. Early intervention, based on resilience factors identified through screening processes, is needed for people with mental illness.
Background and aim: Descriptive phenomenology is widely used in social science research as a method to explore and describe the lived experience of individuals. It is a philosophy and a scientific method and has undertaken many variations as it has moved from the original European movement to include the American movement. The aim of this paper is to describe descriptive phenomenology in the tradition of Edmund Husserl. Integrative literature discussing the nature of descriptive phenomenology was used within this paper to elucidate the core fundamental principles of Husserlian descriptive phenomenology. Methods: This is a methodology paper that provides both an overview of the historical context and the development of descriptive phenomenology in the tradition of Husserl. Results and discussion: Descriptive phenomenology is explained from its historical underpinnings. The principles of the natural attitude, intentionality and the phenomenological reduction are described and using practical examples illustrate how each of these principles are applied within a research context. Conclusions: Understanding the key philosophical foundations of Husserlian descriptive phenomenology as a research method can be daunting to the uninitiated. This paper adds to the discussion around descriptive phenomenology and will assist and inform readers in understanding its key features as a research method.
ObjectiveAdolescents are known to be high users of social media, and social media is
beginning to be used in health care. The primary objective of this review
was to determine the current state of play on the use of social media as a
health intervention in addressing the health of adolescents.MethodsSix databases were searched: CINAHL, Medline, Scopus, ProQuest, Psych Info
and Science Direct, from 2000–2013. The review process followed PRISMA
guidelines with quality assessments of the selected articles undertaken.ResultsThree studies used social media as a health intervention in adolescent
health. Facebook was the social media of choice. The way this social media
tool was incorporated as the intervention varied. None of the social media
interventions had a significant or sustained impact on the primary outcomes
of the studies reviewed. Measures of social media process were limited and
lacked meaning.ConclusionsThe selected papers provided insight into the beginning phase of using social
media as a health intervention to address adolescent health. The review
highlights three important areas for consideration when undertaking research
on the use of social media as a health intervention for adolescents: the
newness of using social media as a health intervention, the importance of
the use of rigorous methodological processes when using social media as a
health intervention, and the need to develop further knowledge on
adolescents’ use of social media, in particular their hidden world of social
Gaining experience in clinical mental health settings is central to the education of health practitioners. To facilitate the ongoing development of knowledge and practice in this area, we performed a review of the literature on clinical placements in mental health settings. Searches in Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, Medline and PsycINFO databases returned 244 records, of which 36 met the selection criteria for this review. Five additional papers were obtained through scanning the reference lists of those papers included from the initial search. The evidence suggests that clinical placements may have multiple benefits (e.g. improving students' skills, knowledge, attitudes towards people with mental health issues and confidence, as well as reducing their fears and anxieties about working in mental health). The location and structure of placements may affect outcomes, with mental health placements in non-mental health settings appearing to have minimal impact on key outcomes. The availability of clinical placements in mental health settings varies considerably among education providers, with some students completing their training without undertaking such structured clinical experiences. Students have generally reported that their placements in mental health settings have been positive and valuable experiences, but have raised concerns about the amount of support they received from education providers and healthcare staff. Several strategies have been shown to enhance clinical placement experiences (e.g. providing students with adequate preparation in the classroom, implementing learning contracts and providing clinical supervision). Educators and healthcare staff need to work together for the betterment of student learning and the healthcare professions.
The educational preparation of registered nurses is presumed to reflect a holistic approach with emphasis on the bio-psycho-social model of care. The broader literature suggests this goal is not always realised. The aim of this study is to present the views, experiences, and perceptions of undergraduate nursing students who were taught by an academic with a lived experience of mental health service use. In particular, we wanted to look at the expected impact of this approach to learning on their nursing practice. A qualitative, exploratory approach was used, involving in-depth individual interviews with 12 undergraduate nursing students completing the course, "recovery for mental health nursing practice," as part of a major in mental health nursing in a university in Queensland, Australia. Students were asked to reflect upon and discuss their experiences of being taught by a person with lived experience of mental health service use. Data were analysed following Colaizzi's steps to identify the main themes. The three main themes were (1) recovery--bringing holistic nursing to life; (2) influencing practice; and (3) gaining self-awareness through course assessment: challenge and opportunity. These themes suggest an appreciation for holistic nursing and an increased capacity for reflective understanding. The responses from participants suggest the Recovery course had a significant impact on their attitudes to nursing and that their nursing practice would be positively enhanced as a consequence.
Available evidence informs us that sexual health concerns of consumers are commonly avoided within mental health services. This paper describes the findings of a qualitative exploratory research project. This research was conducted in three stages, all involving in-depth interviews with 14 nurses working in a mental health setting. Stage 1 involved an exploration of participants' views about including sexual concerns in their practice and included an educational intervention designed to encourage sexual inclusivity in practice. Stage 2 involved follow up interviews 4-6 weeks later to discuss the effectiveness of the intervention and whether practice change had resulted. Stage 3 was conducted two years later with the aim of determining the extent to which practice changes had been sustained. The themes emerging throughout the research emphasised five main stages in the nurses' experience: avoidance; awareness; applying; approval; and acknowledgement. Avoidance of the topic was commonly noted in the early stages of the research. The education program led to awareness raising of sexual concerns and approval towards the importance of this area to which lead to applying it to practice. This ultimately resulted in acknowledgement of the need for sexual concerns to become part of mental health nursing practice. These five stages are represented in the Five A's for including sexual concerns in mental health nursing practice, the framework developed by the first author.
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