The institutional frameworks that Indigenous groups put in place to govern economic processes within their communities are critical to the advancement of their diverse cultural-ecological, social, and economic development goals. Through the lens of institutional logics, this article examines the ways in which First Nations community sawmill enterprises in British Columbia, Canada, navigate the sectoral demands brought by a productivist paradigm of forestry. We find that First Nations community sawmill enterprises represent spaces of both logical tension and innovation where conflicts that arise between dominant “commercial” logics and culturally legitimate “Indigenous” logics can be reconciled. Through this analysis, this article offers an empirical example of the emergence of Indigenous institutional frameworks, as well as a contribution to the growing body of literature that addresses the ways in which hybrid organizations can and do navigate and overcome conflicting institutional logics.
Acid leaching (with 1 mol dm-3 HNO3) was combined with slurry nebulization in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, with mixed-gas plasmas and flow injection, in an attempt to facilitate the quantitative analysis of heterogeneous materials such as soils. Matrices analyzed ranged from marine sediment to metal-contaminated soil, and were chosen for their variety in elemental composition and matrix structure. Slurries were prepared by first grinding the material to less than 3 μm in high-purity water and then diluting to 0.1% (w/v) with 1 mol dm-3 HNO3, which served as both a dispersing and a leaching agent. The resulting slurries were injected (0.25 cm3) into a deionized distilled water carrier. Under these conditions, the sensitivity was about 85% of that achieved by continuous nebulization. Multivariate optimization of the nitrogen percentage, forward torch power, and aerosol carrier gas flow rate was conducted to find conditions maintaining sensitivity constant between different slurries. Since no set of conditions was optimal for all elements, a compromise set was selected, which resulted in accurate results for La and Pb in a series of reference materials, by calibrating with aqueous standards. On the other hand, the results for V and Cr were almost systematically low, indicating that the compromise plasma conditions did not allow complete atomization/ionization of these elements.Key words: inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, slurry nebulization, flow injection, mixed-gas plasma.
The recognition of Aboriginal title by the Supreme Court of Canada in 2014 affirmed the existence and relevance of a Tŝilhqot’in legal order governing the relationship that Tŝilhqot’in people have with their lands, with each other, and with outsiders. The challenge now for the Tŝilhqot’in is to articulate and enact these laws in ways that respond to their modern socio-economic and cultural-ecological needs and goals without betraying their fundamental principles. Complicating this is a dominant narrative which rationalizes First Nations compliance with liberal institutions of British common law, property, and market-based economic growth as requirements for socio-economic improvements and well-being within First Nations communities. This article interrogates some of the logics and fundamental assumptions that underpin the arguments of liberal property rights enthusiasts, questioning their applicability to the values and aspirations of the Tŝilhqot’in people and First Nations broadly. The Tŝilhqot’in, empowered through title, at once resist liberal private property while at the same recognize the need for institutional developments in relation to lands, housing, and ‘ownership’. This indicates a need for new legal conceptualizations of property that are more comprehensively rooted in, and reflective of, Indigenous laws and land relations.
In Canada, the advance of industrial resource extraction has been moderated by a series of key legal decisions that have found that development activities within the traditional territories of Indigenous Nations may infringe on Aboriginal and treaty rights, requiring a duty to consult and potentially accommodate those affected. In British Columbia this duty is primarily satisfied through the Crown referrals process, whereby affected First Nation groups are notified by the Crown regarding potential rights-affecting decisions and are given an opportunity to formulate a response. This form of institutionalized engagement presents an ongoing challenge for First Nation groups who struggle to manage the influx of Crown referrals, as well as a dilemma for those who question its fairness and inherent colonial structure. For others, it is seen as an opportunity to leverage the duty to consult and accommodate in order to strengthen territorial self-governance. In this paper we introduce the idea of counter-institutionalizing and explore the conditions under which the Crown referrals process is being redrawn to better address, and not, the ability of First Nation groups to improve territorial self-governance and the trade-offs involved.
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