SummaryCellular senescence occurs not only in cultured fibroblasts, but also in undifferentiated and specialized cells from various tissues of all ages, in vitro and in vivo. Here, we review recent findings on the role of cellular senescence in immune cell fate decisions in macrophage polarization, natural killer cell phenotype, and following T‐lymphocyte activation. We also introduce the involvement of the onset of cellular senescence in some immune responses including T‐helper lymphocyte‐dependent tissue homeostatic functions and T‐regulatory cell‐dependent suppressive mechanisms. Altogether, these data propose that cellular senescence plays a wide‐reaching role as a homeostatic orchestrator.
Dominant optic atrophy is a rare inherited optic nerve degeneration caused by mutations in the mitochondrial fusion gene OPA1. Recently, the clinical spectrum of dominant optic atrophy has been extended to frequent syndromic forms, exhibiting various degrees of neurological and muscle impairments frequently found in mitochondrial diseases. Although characterized by a specific loss of retinal ganglion cells, the pathophysiology of dominant optic atrophy is still poorly understood. We generated an Opa1 mouse model carrying the recurrent Opa1(delTTAG) mutation, which is found in 30% of all patients with dominant optic atrophy. We show that this mouse displays a multi-systemic poly-degenerative phenotype, with a presentation associating signs of visual failure, deafness, encephalomyopathy, peripheral neuropathy, ataxia and cardiomyopathy. Moreover, we found premature age-related axonal and myelin degenerations, increased autophagy and mitophagy and mitochondrial supercomplex instability preceding degeneration and cell death. Thus, these results support the concept that Opa1 protects against neuronal degeneration and opens new perspectives for the exploration and the treatment of mitochondrial diseases.
Mutations in the type II transmembrane serine protease 3 (TMPRSS3) gene cause non-syndromic autosomal recessive deafness (DFNB8/10), characterized by congenital or childhood onset bilateral profound hearing loss. In order to explore the physiopathology of TMPRSS3 related deafness, we have generated an ethyl-nitrosourea-induced mutant mouse carrying a protein-truncating nonsense mutation in Tmprss3 (Y260X) and characterized the functional and histological consequences of Tmprss3 deficiency. Auditory brainstem response revealed that wild type and heterozygous mice have normal hearing thresholds up to 5 months of age, whereas Tmprss3 Y260X homozygous mutant mice exhibit severe deafness. Histological examination showed degeneration of the organ of Corti in adult mutant mice. Cochlear hair cell degeneration starts at the onset of hearing, postnatal day 12, in the basal turn and progresses very rapidly toward the apex, reaching completion within 2 days. Given that auditory and vestibular deficits often co-exist, we evaluated the balancing abilities of Tmprss3 Y260X mice by using rotating rod and vestibular behavioral tests. Tmprss3 Y260X mice effectively displayed mild vestibular syndrome that correlated histologically with a slow degeneration of saccular hair cells. In situ hybridization in the developing inner ear showed that Tmprss3 mRNA is localized in sensory hair cells in the cochlea and the vestibule. Our results show that Tmprss3 acts as a permissive factor for cochlear hair cells survival and activation at the onset of hearing and is required for saccular hair cell survival. This mouse model will certainly help to decipher the molecular mechanisms underlying DFNB8/10 deafness and cochlear function.
Objective Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are potent immunosuppressive cells that have shown promise in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Deciphering the intrinsic characteristics of MSCs that correlate with their biologic activity will facilitate their clinical use. Recently, the role of glucocorticoid‐induced leucine zipper (GILZ) in the development of RA has been documented. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether GILZ expression by MSCs may contribute to their therapeutic effect. Methods MSCs were isolated from GILZ‐deficient (GILZ−/−) mice and wild‐type mice. MSCs (1 × 106 cells) were injected twice via the tail vein into mice with collagen‐induced arthritis (CIA). Results In vitro, we showed that GILZ is a key factor involved in the immunosuppressive potential of MSCs. MSCs derived from GILZ−/− mice did not suppress the proliferation of CD4+ T cells and were less efficient than MSCs derived from WT mice in altering Th17 cell polarization. Thus, we investigated the role of GILZ in an experimental model of arthritis and demonstrated that although WT MSCs significantly reduced paw swelling in arthritic mice, GILZ−/− MSCs did not. Moreover, the magnitude of the effects of GILZ−/− MSCs on Th17 cell frequency was significantly lower than that of WT MSCs. The therapeutic effect of MSCs correlated with the generation of Treg cells bearing the CD4 + RORγt+IL‐17low IL‐10+ signature, and Th17 cell polarization was GILZ dependent. Conclusion This study demonstrates that GILZ has an essential role in the therapeutic effectiveness of MSCs in arthritis by favoring Th17 cell polarization toward a regulatory phenotype. Therefore, potentiation of GILZ expression in MSCs could represent a means to enhance their therapeutic effect in autoimmune diseases.
Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is caused by a deficiency in Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) leading to global sensorial abnormalities, among which visual defects represent a critical part. These visual defects are associated with cerebral neuron immaturity especially in the primary visual cortex. However, we recently demonstrated that retinas of adult Fmr1−/y mice, the FXS murine model, present molecular, cellular and functional alterations. However, no data are currently available on the evolution pattern of such defects. As retinal stimulation through Eye Opening (EO) is a crucial signal for the cerebral visual system maturation, we questioned the precocity of molecular and functional retinal phenotype. To answer this question, we studied the retinal molecular phenotype of Fmr1−/y mice before EO until adult age and the consequences of the retinal loss of Fmrp on retinal function in young and adult mice. We showed that retinal molecular defects are present before EO and remain stable at adult age, leading to electrophysiological impairments without any underlying structural changes. We underlined that loss of Fmrp leads to a wide range of defects in the retina, settled even before EO. Our work demonstrates a critical role of the sensorial dysfunction in the Fmr1−/y mice overall phenotype, and provides evidence that altered peripheral perception is a component of the sensory processing defect in FXS conditions.
IntroductionRegulatory T (Treg) cells play a crucial role in preventing autoimmune diseases and are an ideal target for the development of therapies designed to suppress inflammation in an antigen-specific manner. Type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells are defined by their capacity to produce high levels of interleukin 10 (IL-10), which contributes to their ability to suppress pathological immune responses in several settings. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of collagen type II–specific Tr1 (Col-Treg) cells in two models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in mice.MethodsCol-Treg clones were isolated and expanded from collagen-specific TCR transgenic mice. Their cytokine secretion profile and phenotype characterization were studied. The therapeutic potential of Col-Treg cells was evaluated after adoptive transfer in collagen-antibody– and collagen-induced arthritis models. The in vivo suppressive mechanism of Col-Treg clones on effector T-cell proliferation was also investigated.ResultsCol-Treg clones are characterized by their specific cytokine profile (IL-10highIL-4negIFN-γint) and mediate contact-independent immune suppression. They also share with natural Tregs high expression of GITR, CD39 and granzyme B. A single infusion of Col-Treg cells reduced the incidence and clinical symptoms of arthritis in both preventive and curative settings, with a significant impact on collagen type II antibodies. Importantly, injection of antigen-specific Tr1 cells decreased the proliferation of antigen-specific effector T cells in vivo significantly.ConclusionsOur results demonstrate the therapeutic potential of Col-Treg cells in two models of RA, providing evidence that Col-Treg could be an efficient cell-based therapy for RA patients whose disease is refractory to current treatments.
Progressive loss of tissue homeostasis is a hallmark of numerous age-related pathologies, including osteoarthritis (OA). Accumulation of senescent chondrocytes in joints contributes to the age-dependent cartilage loss of functions through the production of hypertrophy-associated catabolic matrix-remodeling enzymes and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Here, we evaluated the effects of the secreted variant of the anti-aging hormone α-Klotho on cartilage homeostasis during both cartilage formation and OA development. First, we found that α-Klotho expression was detected during mouse limb development, and transiently expressed during in vitro chondrogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Genome-wide gene array analysis of chondrocytes from OA patients revealed that incubation with recombinant secreted α-Klotho repressed expression of the NOS2 and ZIP8/MMP13 catabolic remodeling axis. Accordingly, α-Klotho expression was reduced in chronically IL1β-treated chondrocytes and in cartilage of an OA mouse model. Finally, in vivo intra-articular secreted α-Kotho gene transfer delays cartilage degradation in the OA mouse model. Altogether, our results reveal a new tissue homeostatic function for this anti-aging hormone in protecting against OA onset and progression.
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