6. Conclusion 7706 Author Information 7706 Biographies 7707 Acknowledgment 7707 Abbreviations Used 7707 References 7708the corresponding allyl-and propargylchromium reagents that further react with a variety of electrophiles to afford the corresponding adducts in high yields. 102 Bu 6 CrLi 3 similarly behaves as a formal two-electron reductant with ketones and esters bearing a leaving group at the α-position to produce enolates that are intercepted with a variety of electrophiles with high selectivities (Table 8). 103 Such enolates are also capable of reacting with oxiranes to afford γand β-hydroxy esters, depending on the Lewis acid used as promoter. 2143.2.2. Two-Electron Transfers from M,Mn-HeteroMAAs (M = Li, MgX). In 1976, Cahiez et al. disclosed the possible reduction in THF of alkenyl bromides or iodides, as well as aryl chlorides or bromides, using i-PrMgCl in the presence of a catalytic amount of MnCl 2 . 215 The authors proposed the in situ formation of unstable i-Pr 3 MnMgCl and its decomposition by β-elimination to H 3 MnMgCl; reaction of the latter with the halide would then afford an unstable Mn(IV) intermediate, able Scheme 23 Scheme 24 Scheme 21 Scheme 22
The complexes between methyllithium and chiral 3-aminopyrrolidine (3-AP) lithium amides bearing a second asymmetric center on their lateral amino group were studied using multinuclear ((1)H, (6)Li, (13)C, (15)N) low-temperature NMR spectroscopies in tetrahydrofuran-d(8). The results indicate that lithium chelation forces the pyrrolidine ring of the 3-AP to adopt a norbornyl-like conformation and that robust 1:1 noncovalent complexes between methyllithium and 3-AP lithium amides form in the medium. A set of (1)H-(1)H and (1)H-(6)Li NMR cross-coupling correlations shows that the binding of methyllithium can take place along the "exo" or the "endo" face of this puckered structure, depending on the relative configuration of the lateral chiral group. This aggregation step renders the nitrogen of the 3-amino group chiral, the "exo" and "endo" topologies corresponding to the (S) and (R) configurations, respectively, of this atom. Density functional theory calculations show that the "exo" and "endo" arrangements are, for both diastereomers, almost isoenergetic even when solvent is taken into account. This result suggests that the formation of the mixed aggregates is under strict kinetic control. A relationship between the topology of these complexes and the sense of induction in the enantioselective alkylation of aromatic aldehydes by alkyllithiums is proposed.
The structure of the aggregates formed when mixing methyllithium and lithium chloride in THF has been studied by multinuclear magnetic resonance at 170 K. The data suggest that only one new entity is observed, that is the dimer [(MeLi)(LiCl)], in equilibrium (K approximately 0.6) with [MeLi](4) and [LiCl](2). NMR diffusion measurements lead to the conclusion that this dimer is trisolvated in THF at 170 K, a solvation scheme in agreement with DFT computations.
A substoichiometric enantioselective version of the extremely fast nucleophilic addition of Alk-Li to RCHO is made possible thanks to a thorough analysis of the aggregation phenomena involved in the reaction: calculated quantities of LiCl must be added to the medium at the right time to keep the catalytic cycle running.
Determination of the structure and solvation states of organolithium aggregates in complex solution remains a challenging task. Here, we show that (1)H Pure Shift DOSY NMR provides better resolution spectra without overlapping, even for complex solutions of mixed aggregates of n-BuLi/n-BuOLi. This ensures the direct observation of the apparent diffusion constant for each component in the solution and therefore allows a fast assignment of aggregation states, and solvation degree.
A multinuclear NMR study shows that the deprotonation of diphenylphosphine-borane by n-BuLi in THF leads to a disolvated lithium phosphido-borane Ph(2)P(BH(3))Li of which Li(+) is connected to the hydrides on the boron and two THF molecules rather than to the phosphorus. This entity behaves as both a phosphination and a reducing agent, depending on the kinetic or thermodynamic control imposed to the reaction medium. Density functional theory computations show that H(2)P(BH(3))Li exhibits a ditopic character (the lithium cation can be in the vicinity of the hydride or of the phosphorus). It explains its dual reactivity (H- or P-addition), both routes going through somewhat similar six-membered transition states with low activation barriers.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.