Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in dementia pathogenesis; however, its impact on salivary secretion and salivary qualities is still unknown. This study included 80 patients with moderate dementia and 80 healthy age- and sex-matched individuals. Salivary flow, antioxidants (salivary peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, uric acid and total antioxidant capacity), and oxidative damage products (advanced oxidation protein products, advanced glycation end products (AGE), 8-isoprostanes, 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine and total oxidant status) were estimated in non-stimulated and stimulated saliva, as well as in plasma and erythrocytes. We show that in dementia patients the concentration/activity of major salivary antioxidants changes, and the level of oxidative damage to DNA, proteins and lipids is increased compared to healthy controls. Non-stimulated and stimulated salivary secretions were significantly reduced in dementia patients. The deterioration in mini mental state examination (MMSE) score correlated with salivary AGE levels, which when considered with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, suggests their potential role in the non-invasive diagnosis of dementia. In conclusion, dementia is associated with disturbed salivary redox homeostasis and impaired secretory function of the salivary glands. Salivary AGE may be useful in the diagnosis of dementia.
The latest studies have indicated a strong relationship between systemic insulin resistance (IR) and higher incidence of neurodegeneration, dementia, and mild cognitive impairment. Although some of these abnormalities could be explained by chronic hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidaemia, and/or prolonged whole-body inflammation, the key role is attributed to the neuronal redox imbalance and oxidative damage. In this mini review, we provide a schematic overview of intracellular oxidative stress and mitochondrial abnormalities in the IR brain. We highlight important correlations found so far between brain oxidative stress, ceramide generation, β-amyloid accumulation, as well as neuronal apoptosis in the IR conditions.
This study is the first to evaluate oxidative stress biomarkers in saliva/blood of patients with varying degrees of dementia progression. The study included 50 healthy controls and 50 dementia patients divided into two groups: those with mild and moderate dementia (MMSE 11–23) and patients suffering from severe dementia (MMSE 0–10). Cognitive functions of the subjects were assessed using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, oxidative damage products and protein glycoxidative modifications were determined in non-stimulated (NWS) and stimulated (SWS) saliva as well as erythrocyte/plasma samples. Generally, in dementia patients, we observed the depletion of antioxidant defences leading to oxidative and glycoxidative damage in NWS, SWS and blood samples. Both salivary and blood oxidative stress increased with the severity of the disease, and correlated with a decrease of cognitive functions. Interestingly, in dementia patients, reduced glutathione (GSH) in NWS correlated not only with the severity of dementia, but also with GSH concentration in the plasma. In receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, we have demonstrated that salivary GSH clearly distinguishes patients with severe dementia from those suffering from mild or moderate dementia (area under the curve (AUC) = 1). Therefore, salivary GSH can be used as a non-invasive biomarker of cognitive impairment.
There are still missing non-invasive biomarkers of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate oxidative stress indicators in the non-stimulated (NWS) and stimulated saliva (SWS) of CKD children (n = 25) and healthy controls (n = 25). Salivary antioxidants (catalase (CAT), peroxidase (Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), uric acid (UA), reduced glutathione (GSH), albumin), redox status (total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI)), and oxidative damage products (advanced glycation end products (AGE), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), malondialdehyde (MDA)) were evaluated. We have demonstrated the significantly higher activity of SWS GPx and SOD, as well as elevated concentrations of UA and albumin in NWS and SWS of CKD children vs. the control group. TAC, TOS and OSI were significantly higher only in SWS, while oxidative damage products (AGE, AOPP and MDA) were significantly higher in both NWS and SWS of CKD children. ROC analysis showed a considerably high diagnostic value of AOPP in both NWS and SWS of CKD children compared to controls (AUC = 0.92; 0.98). CKD is responsible for disturbances in salivary antioxidant systems and oxidative damage to proteins and lipids. Salivary AOPP can be a potential biomarker of CKD in children.
Despite the proven role of oxidative stress in numerous systemic diseases and in the process of aging, little is still known about the salivary redox balance of healthy children, adults, and the elderly. Our study was the first to assess the antioxidant barrier, redox status, and oxidative damage in nonstimulated (NWS) and stimulated (SWS) saliva as well as blood samples of healthy individuals at different ages. We divided 90 generally healthy people into three equally numbered groups based on age: 2–14 (children and adolescents), 25–45 (adults), and 65–85 (elderly people). Antioxidant enzymes (salivary peroxidase (Px), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD)), nonenzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione (GSH) and uric acid (UA)), redox status (total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI)), and oxidative damage products (advanced glycation end products (AGE), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), and malondialdehyde (MDA)) were evaluated in NWS and SWS as well as in erythrocyte/plasma samples. We demonstrated that salivary and blood antioxidant defense is most effective in people aged 25–45. In the elderly, we observed a progressive decrease in the efficiency of central antioxidant systems (↓GPx, ↓SOD, ↓GSH, and ↓TAC in erythrocytes and plasma vs. adults) as well as in NWS (↓Px, ↓UA, and ↓TAC vs. adults) and SWS (↓TAC vs. adults). Both local and systemic antioxidant systems were less efficient in children and adolescents than in the group of middle-aged people, which indicates age-related immaturity of antioxidant mechanisms. Oxidative damage to proteins (↑AGE, ↑AOPP) and lipids (↑MDA) was significantly higher in saliva and plasma of elderly people in comparison with adults and children/adolescents. Of all the evaluated biomarkers, only salivary oxidative damage products generally reflected their content in blood plasma. The level of salivary redox biomarkers did not vary based on gender.
Still little is known about the role of oxidative stress (OS) in the pathogenesis of the salivary gland dysfunction in the course of insulin resistance (IR). To induce IR rats was fed with a high fat diet (HFD) during 8 weeks. Stimulated and non-stimulated salivary flow rate, total protein, as well as oxidative damage markers: 4-HNE protein adduct, 8-isoprostanes (8-isoP), 8-hydroxy-D-guanosine (8-OHdG), advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP), and protein carbonyls (PC) were determined in the plasma and submandibular and parotid glands of IR and control rats. We have shown a significant decrease (45%) of the stimulated salivary flow rate, and in the total protein concentration in the parotid (35%) and submandibular (10%) glands of HFD IR as compared to the control rats. The level of 4-HNE protein adduct (15%) and 8-isoP (20%) in the submandibular glands of IR rats as well as total level of 4-HNE protein adduct (39%), 8-isoP (27%), AOPP (25%), PC (32%), and 8-OHdG (18%) in the parotid glands of IR rats were significantly higher as compared to the control group. We showed no correlation between the assessed OS parameters in the plasma and salivary glands. However, the redox balance in both glands shifted toward the oxidative status, parotid glands of IR rats are exposed to greater intensity OS. Stimulated secretory ability and mechanisms involved in the synthesis/secretion of proteins in the salivary glands are depressed in the course of IR. Oxidative damage in the salivary glands arises independently from the general OS in the course of insulin resistance induced by a high fat diet.
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