Women undergoing fertility treatment demonstrate their resilience through a variety of actions that enable them to continue to pursue their pregnancy goal. Clinical staff should be mindful of their clients' need to withdraw from the treatment cycle and offer support to enable them to do this.
The perlid genus Anacroneuria is the most widely distributed stonefly occurring in the Neotropics. Regional studies of this genus were made early in the last century, whereas local taxonomic and distributional studies have recently increased. In this study, we provide new Central American records for four species of Anacroneuria. Anacroneuria choco Stark & Bersosa 2006, A. costana (Navás 1924), A. hacha Stark 1998, and A. laru Gutiérrez-Fonseca 2015 are newly reported including new range extensions.
The formal state ownership of alcohol production assets detailed in chapter 4 was far from the only way in which economic interests and alcohol policymaking collided under Putin. This chapter provides a case study of the complex kleptocracy in the Russian political economy. The interests in vodka production of some of Putin’s closest cronies – and their perceived influence on state policy – are analysed in the context of sistema, the informal network-based system of governance in Russia through which allies of Putin are rewarded with business rents.
How vodka provided the economic foundations of the tsarist Russian state from its invention in the sixteenth century. Examines the Bolsheviks’ contradictory approaches to alcohol: they railed against the tsarist alcohol monopoly as exploitation of the working classes, but came to adopt such a monopoly themselves once in power. In the 1920s the Bolsheviks were deeply divided as to what the Soviet approach to alcohol should be, which reflected a broader division within the Party as to how socialism should be built. Stalin’s approach of maximising alcohol sales to fund rapid industrialization prevailed, and from the start of the 1930s any discussion of alcohol problems within the USSR was silenced.
Analyses the launch in 2009 of a new anti-alcohol initiative overseen by President Medvedev; explains the factors that led to its development, and why it took the form that it did. It is vital to the survival of the political super elite that they are seen to act in the national interest. Once the “alcohol-as-demographic-problem” was in the public eye this included taking action against drinking. However, the government had a delicate balancing act to play, for at the same time it had to ensure that it did not alienate the Russian drinking public. This explains the focus on youth drinking, which is perceived as a major problem in Russian society despite objective indicators suggesting otherwise.
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