Abstract. We study µHML (a branching-time logic with least and greatest fixpoints) from a runtime verification perspective. We establish which subset of the logic can be verified at runtime and define correct monitor-synthesis algorithms for this subset. We also prove completeness results wrt. these logical subsets that show that no other properties apart from those identified can be verified at runtime.
This paper establishes a comprehensive theory of runtime monitorability for Hennessy-Milner logic with recursion, a very expressive variant of the modal µ-calculus. It investigates the monitorability of that logic with a linear-time semantics and then compares the obtained results with ones that were previously presented in the literature for a branching-time setting. Our work establishes an expressiveness hierarchy of monitorable fragments of Hennessy-Milner logic with recursion in a linear-time setting and exactly identifies what kinds of guarantees can be given using runtime monitors for each fragment in the hierarchy. Each fragment is shown to be complete, in the sense that it can express all properties that can be monitored under the corresponding guarantees. The study is carried out using a principled approach to monitoring that connects the semantics of the logic and the operational semantics of monitors. The proposed framework supports the automatic, compositional synthesis of correct monitors from monitorable properties.
Prefix iteration is a variation on the original binary version of the Kleene star operation P * Q, obtained by restricting the first argument to be an atomic action. The interaction of prefix iteration with silent steps is studied in the setting of Milner's basic CCS. Complete equational axiomatizations are given for four notions of behavioural congruence over basic CCS with prefix iteration, viz. branching congruence, η-congruence, delay congruence and weak congruence. The completeness proofs for η-, delay, and weak congruence are obtained by reduction to the completeness theorem for branching congruence. It is also argued that the use of the completeness result for branching congruence in obtaining the completeness result for weak congruence leads to a considerable simplification with respect to the only direct proof presented in the literature. The preliminaries and the completeness proofs focus on open terms, i.e., terms that may contain process variables. As a byproduct, the ω-completeness of the axiomatizations is obtained as well as their completeness for closed terms.
Formal methods is the term used to describe the specification and verification of software and software systems using mathematical logic. Various methodologies have been developed and incorporated into software tools. An important subclass is distributed systems. There are many books that look at particular methodologies for such systems, e.g. CSP, process algebra. This book offers a more balanced introduction for graduate students that describes the various approaches, their strengths and weaknesses, and when they are best used. Milner's CCS and its operational semantics are introduced, together with notions of behavioural equivalence based on bisimulation techniques and with variants of Hennessy-Milner modal logics. Later in the book, the presented theories are extended to take timing issues into account. The book has arisen from various courses taught in Iceland and Denmark and is designed to give students a broad introduction to the area, with exercises throughout.
Abstract. Van Glabbeek (1990) presented the linear time/branching time spectrum of behavioral equivalences for finitely branching, concrete, sequential processes. He studied these semantics in the setting of the basic process algebra BCCSP, and tried to give finite complete axiomatizations for them. Obtaining such axiomatizations in concurrency theory often turns out to be difficult, even in the setting of simple languages like BCCSP. This has raised a host of open questions that have been the subject of intensive research in recent years. Most of these questions have been settled over BCCSP, either positively by giving a finite complete axiomatization, or negatively by proving that such an axiomatization does not exist. Still some open questions remain. This paper reports on these results, and on the state-of-the-art in axiomatizations for richer process algebras with constructs like sequential and parallel composition.
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