This study investigated the socialization of children's emotion regulation in physically maltreating and non-maltreating mother-child dyads (N = 80 dyads). Mother-child dyads participated in the parent-child emotion interaction task (Shipman & Zeman, 1999) in which they talked about emotionally-arousing situations. The PCEIT was coded for maternal validation and invalidation in response to children's emotion. Mothers were also interviewed about their approach to emotion socialization using the meta-emotion interview-parent version (Katz & Gottman, 1999). The meta-emotion interview-parent version was coded for maternal emotion coaching. Mothers also completed measures that assessed their child abuse potential and abuse-related behaviors as well as children's emotion regulation. Findings indicated that maltreated children demonstrated fewer adaptive emotion regulation skills and more emotion dysregulation than non-maltreated children. In addition, maltreating mothers engaged in less validation and emotion coaching and more invalidation in response to children's emotion than non-maltreating mothers. Finally, maternal emotion socialization behaviors mediated the relation between maltreatment status and children's adaptive emotion regulation skills.
This study investigated the influence of maternal socialization (i.e., maternal support, discussion of emotion, negative affect) on children's emotional understanding in 24 neglectful mother-child dyads and a matched control group. Mothers and children were administered an interaction task. Mothers were also assessed for negative emotional experience, and children were assessed for emotional understanding and expectations of maternal support. Findings indicated that neglectful mothers, compared with nonneglectful mothers, provided less support in response to their children's emotional displays, engaged in less emotional discussion, and reported more negative emotion. As well, neglected children demonstrated lower levels of emotional understanding than nonmaltreated children. Further, maternal support mediated the relation between neglect and children's emotional understanding. Findings are discussed from the functionalist approach to emotional development, emphasizing the importance of social context and socialization on children's emotional understanding.
On average, randomized controlled trials of CBT and of psychodynamic therapy did not differ significantly in quality. In CBT trials, low quality appeared to reduce the reliability and validity of trial results. These findings highlight the importance of discerning quality in individual psychotherapy trials and also point toward specific methodological standards for the future.
Maximal voluntary muscular torque output of the quadriceps and hamstrings during isokinetic exercise was studied. Both knees of 50 male and 50 female subjects between the ages of 25 and 34 were tested at 60, 180, and 300" per second on the Cybex II isokinetic dynamometer. The means, standard deviations, ranges, absolute value differences, and analysis of variance were calculated on the torque values. The findings were that 1) torque values decreased as speed of exercise increased; 2) quadriceps torque values were significantly greater than the hamstrings at each test speed; 3) the ratio of hamstring torque values to quadriceps torque values significantly increased as the test speed increased; 4) dominant and nondominant knee torque values differed significantly for the males but not for the females; 5) the ratio of nondominant to dominant knee torque values was equal to or greater than 97% in all tests; and 6) the absolute difference in torque values between each subject's knees was 12 foot-pounds or less. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1981;3(2):48-56.
Polarimetric studies on camphor (2) as well as IR studies on crotonaldehyde (CA; 1) and benzonitrile (BN; 3) confirm the conclusion of a previously published NMR study on crotonaldehyde that lithium perchlorate (LP) weakly binds to probe bases in diethyl ether (DE). The weak binding is a consequence of the fact that the lithium ion (actually the LP ion pair and higher aggregates), a powerful Lewis acid in the gas phase, competitively binds to ether and the added base. Methylene camphor (5), (E)-1,3-pentadiene (4), camphene, and phenylacetylene (6) do not bind to LP in DE. Shifts to lower energy of the CO modes of CA in ether solutions containing increasing amounts of LP are consistent with moderate increases in solvent polarity. Only small or no shifts are seen in the C⋮N modes of BN and its 1:1 complex with added LP. Because the C⋮N and especially CO modes are blue shifted under external applied pressure, the large internal pressures of LP/DE do not mimic external applied pressure. Likewise, the small or no changes observed in λmax for the absorption and emission spectra of anthracene (9) and azulene (8) in ether as a function of LP concentration do not conform to what is observed under external applied pressure. Studies of the Diels−Alder reaction of (E)-1,3-pentadiene with methyl acrylate show that the reaction is entirely catalyzed in LP/DE; polarity and internal pressure do not influence product selectivity in this reaction.
There is a strong movement toward implementation of evidence-based practices (EBP) in child welfare systems. The SafeCare parenting model is one of few parent-training models that addresses child neglect, the most common form of maltreatment. Here, the authors describe initial findings from a statewide effort to implement the EBP, SafeCare®, into a state child welfare system. A total of 50 agencies participated in training, with 295 individuals entering training to implement SafeCare. Analyses were conducted to describe the trainee sample, describe initial training and implementation indicators, and to examine correlates of initial training performance and implementation indicators. The quality of SafeCare uptake during training and implementation was high with trainees performing very well on training quizzes and role-plays, and demonstrating high fidelity when implementing SafeCare in the field (performing over 90% of expected behaviors). However, the quantity of implementation was generally low, with relatively few providers (only about 25%) implementing the model following workshop training. There were no significant predictors of training or implementation performance, once corrections for multiple comparisons were applied. The Discussion focuses on challenges to large-scale system-wide implementation of EBP. Keywords dissemenation/implementation; parenting; child welfare services/child protection; neglect Many child welfare systems are moving to adopt structured, standardized, evidenced-based approaches to working with families, as evaluations of existing unstructured services have generally failed to find positive service effects (e.g., Chaffin, Bonner, & Hill, 2001;Westat, 2002). One promising evidence-based practice (EBP) being implemented in several child welfare agencies is the SafeCare® model. SafeCare is a behaviorally based parent training model that targets parents of children aged 0-5. SafeCare content focus on home safety, child health, and parent-child interactions (Lutzker & Bigelow, 2002) Method Statewide SafeCare Implementation PlanState funds were received in 2008 for training providers of family preservation services to conduct SafeCare. In this particular state, as in many others, most direct child welfare services are provided by private agencies following a child maltreatment investigation conducted by public child welfare workers. Accordingly, private providers were the most appropriate choice for SafeCare training. To build capacity for large-scale training and support, NSTRC recruited and trained a group of contracted employees to provide Safe-Care training throughout the state, with NSTRC faculty and staff providing supervision and quality control.The implementation was designed so that each agency was trained both to deliver SafeCare (termed home visitors) and to conduct ongoing coaching, consisting of regular fidelity monitoring with feedback. Coaching is a standard part of NSTRC's implementation model (Whitaker et al., 2008), and critical for implementation with fidelity...
Weight loss and malnutrition occur frequently in patients with head and neck cancer and are associated with reduced survival. This pragmatic study aimed to determine the effect of a novel pre-treatment model of nutrition care on nutrition outcomes for patients with head and neck cancer receiving chemoradiotherapy. Methods: This health service evaluation consisted of an evaluation of the new model of care implementation (Phase 1) and an evaluation of patient outcomes (Phase 2) in pre-and post-implementation cohorts (n = 64 and n = 47, respectively). All Phase 2 patients received a prophylactic gastrostomy. The new model of care consisted of dietary counselling and commencement of proactive supplementary enteral nutrition via a prophylactic gastrostomy, in addition to normal oral intake, prior to treatment commencement. Nutrition outcomes were collected at baseline (pre-treatment) and 3 months post-radiotherapy completion.Results: The new model of care was successfully incorporated into practice with high referral (96.5%) and attendance (91.5%) rates to the counselling session, and high adherence rates to proactive tube feeding (80.9%). Patients in the postimplementation cohort had less weight-loss (1.2%; p = 0.338) and saw less of a decline in nutritional status compared to patients in the pre-implementation cohort (23% vs. 30%, respectively; p = 0.572), deemed clinically important. However, patients still experienced critical weight loss overall (mean 9.9%). Conclusion: Pre-treatment nutrition care was feasible in standard clinical practice and demonstrated clinically relevant outcome improvements for patients. Future high-quality research is warranted to investigate further multidisciplinary strategies to attenuate weight-loss further, inclusive of patient-reported barriers and enablers to nutrition interventions.
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