The article is devoted to the study of the artistic style of the famous scientist-theologian, the outstanding poet Abdurakhman from Kakashura. Particular attention is paid to the philosophical and aesthetic principles that form the basis of his work. The artistic manner of Abdurahman from Kakashura is distinguished by the originality of his worldview, imagery and specific use of linguistic means. His poetic world contributes to the in-depth study of Sufism - one of the main phenomena in the political and cultural life of the Republic of Dagestan. The work of Abdurakhman from Kakashura carries a predominantly humanistic message; he is the founder of the humanistic trend in Kumyk literature and represents to some extent a transitional stage between the literature of the Middle Ages and the literature of Modern times. The influence of the work of Abdurakhman from Kakashura on the subsequent generations of Kumyk and Dagestan poets is also indisputable. It is also important to note that most of the issues in his poetry are understood very interestingly and had a great resonance in Dagestan and were important for the development of progressive thought of his time.
English, the Maori language and New Zealand Sign Language are New Zealand's official languages, with English being the most commonly used. Maori make up approximately 15 percent of the population. New Zealand English is one of the youngest varieties of English and is distinctive in that its full formation and development are documented. An important aspect of the recognition of the existence of a national variety of the English language in New Zealand is the codification of the national norm of the literary language, and primarily through a lexicographic reflection. The paper considers the formation and development of New Zealand lexicography within the framework of the linguistic environment. It has been established that the beginning of the formation of the New Zealand lexicographic practice was connected with the description of the Maori language. It needs to be noted that ethnic, cultural, social and language diversity determined the specifics of New Zealand lexicography. Victoria University has been the main centre for lexicography in New Zealand.
The subject of this research is the key genres of song folklore of the Dargin people – one of the ethnoses of Dagestan, which includes such Akushin, Kaitag, Kubachin, Mekegin, Tsudakhar, and others. An attempt is made to examine genre diversity of the Dargin people traditional poetic folklore, describe the forms of existence of specific genres, determine their ideological-aesthetic and artistic content, trace their evolution and transformation, as well as characterize the poetics. The goal of this work consists in demonstration of genre diversity of the song folklore of the Dargin people, its national specificity, artistic uniqueness and forms of existence. In the course of this research, the author applies the method of scientific analysis of theoretical literature on the topic, comparative-typological and descriptive-analytical methods, including observation, interpretation and comparison, which allows giving philological assessment of the text, reveal folk poetic means of expression. The scientific novelty lies in establishment of the fact that some of the genres under consideration still exist, but have undergone transformation. In a number the Dargin Districts, such as the rural localities of Harbuk, Urkarah, Madzhalis, Kubachi, Usisha, etc., texts of ritual poetry that have been previously performed by the adults, now shifted into the repertoire of children's folklore; multiple wedding songs – from ritual folklore to the category of love lyricism, and are performed mostly at youth parties and festivities. Lamentations were subjected to the influenced of Muslim religion, and now often feature the appeals to Allah to bless with patience and mercy, etc. Ballades in the folklore of the Dargin people also experiences certain genre changes: tragedy and drama of the situation fade away, and the ballades grow into the type of lyrical song of family, life or love content.
The article considers extra-linguistic and linguistic aspects of forming New Zealand English vocabulary. We have highlighted the reasons of language changes. New Zealand English contains Maori words related to Maori cultural traditions, many of which have become part of New Zealand culture, as well as to the flora and fauna of New Zealand, particularly for endemic species, along with place names. Maori loan words are the most outstanding feature of the New Zealand English vocabulary. The paper expresses the view that the formation of the New Zealand English vocabulary was influenced by several extralinguistic factors, primarily: historical; cultural-historical; territorial; socio-economic and socio-political. The choice of language units in New Zealand English on a synchronous cross-section depends on such extralinguistic factors as: the age and belonging to a generation; the social affiliation; the place of residence; the level of education and upbringing; the scope of use of the English language. The current revitalization of Maori language and culture has had an important influence on New Zealand English. Maori is endangered and since the 1980s has been the subject of extensive revitalisation initiatives. It is worth noting that the official status of Maori gave all New Zealanders the opportunity to reflect on their country's bicultural identity. Most of the common Maori names for trees, birds and fish were borrowed in the first half of the 19th century, and words like kauri and totara (trees), tui and weka (birds), tarakihi (fish), pipi (shellfish), katipo (spider) are now basic items to all New Zealanders. The authors conclude the vocabulary is dominated not by new lexical units (neologisms), but by lexical and semantic variants of common English units, or rather their figurative uses. This circumstance is associated with the activation of certain layers of vocabulary that reflect relevant phenomena for society.
The subject of this study is Dagestan literature. Special attention is paid to the first written works in the republic, which appeared under the influence of Arab-Muslim culture. This article examines the influence of Arabic-language culture on the formation of literary traditions of the peoples of Dagestan. Works in Arabic, Persian and Turkic languages in the spiritual literature of Dagestan testify to the centuries-old impact of Eastern culture. The manuscript gives an overview of the first Arabic-language sources written on the territory of Dagestan in the X-XII centuries. With the integration of the Arabic language in society, there is a creative flourishing of the activities of scientists of various fields of science: ethics, dogmatics, logic, Muslim law, hagiography and many others. The authors note not only the influence of Eastern literature, but also the creativity of the peoples of the Near and Middle East in the fate of Dagestan written literature and literary traditions. The authors of the article note that the spread of writing based on Arabic graphics contributed to the increase in the level of literacy of the Dagestan population, which is reflected in the literature.
The object of this study is the Kumyk literature of the Middle Ages, which, along with the enlightenment, is dominated by the ideas of religious unity. As a result of the adoption of Islam by the peoples of Dagestan, including the Kumyks, their written literature, which was based on the Koran, acquires a pronounced general Muslim character. The spiritual literature of the Kumyks had the forms of religiouspreachings, reflections, philosophizing and instructions, which are popularly known as "Turki". The concept of "Turki", which includes numerous spiritual poems of various contents and forms, is a single system of genres, namely religious poems. The authors of this study also revealed that along with the strengthening of the position of Islam in Dagestan in the XVI century, religious themes were increasingly introduced into literature, occupying an important place in the works of Kumyk poets and theologians. The authors of the article consider the koranic motifs in the spiritual literature of the Kumyks in the works included in the collection "Majmu ul-manzumat al-ajamiya". The eschatological motives in this work can be divided into two parts: edifying, prescribing how to behave, and descriptive - a description of the horrors that await people in the event of non-compliance with these instructions.
Proverbs and sayings are an ancient genre of folk art. They originated in a distant time, and have their roots deep into the centuries. Many of them appeared even when there was no written language. Proverbs and sayings characterize not only folk wisdom, but also determine the ethnic identity and national-cultural features of a particular people. Their edifying message is relevant in modern society, and the brevity and simplicity of rhyme allows people of different ethnic groups to spread on aphoristic sayings from generation to generation. The analyzed paremias containing the concept of “home” differ in thematic diversity and reflect the ethnic culture of the Kumyk people: their traditional values, worldview, religious and other foundations. The home for the native speaker of the national language consciousness is a part of the unchanging environment of a person, the sphere of his existence, as well as a source of practical use. The house is a symbol of constancy, reliability and a sense of security, belonging to the family, the genus. The system of moral and ethical values, which consists in proverbs and sayings, is the result of centuries of experience, which was formed by the people. In the modern world, when traditional values can be distorted, the study of such aphoristic genres as proverbs and sayings, in the aspect of reflecting moral, ethical and moral values in them, contributes to popular education, familiarity with certain customs that should not be dissolved in time.
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