The suggested involvement of ouabain in hypertension raised the need for a better understanding of its cellular action, but the mechanisms of ouabain toxicity are only now being uncovered. In the present study, we show that reduced glutathione (GSH) protected ouabain-sensitive (OS) cells from ouabain-induced toxicity and that the inhibition of GSH synthesis by D, L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) sensitized ouabain-resistant (OR) cells. We could not observe formation of *OH or H2O2, but there was an increase in O2*-only in OS cells. Unexpectedly, an increased number of OR cells depolarized after treatment with ouabain, and BSO blocked this depolarization. Moreover, GSH increased ouabain-induced depolarization in OS cells. A sustained increase in tyrosine phosphorylation (P-Tyr) and Ras expression was observed after treatment of OS cells, and GSH prevented it. Conversely, BSO induced P-Tyr and Ras expression in ouabain-treated OR cells. The results obtained have three major implications: There is no direct correlation between membrane depolarization and ouabain-induced cell death; ouabain toxicity is not directly related to its classical action as a Na+, K+-ATPase inhibitor but seems to be associated to signal transduction, and GSH plays a major role in preventing ouabain-induced cell death.
Angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)) modulates the Na+-ATPase, but not the Na+,K+-ATPase activity present in pig kidney proximal tubules. The Na+-ATPase, insensitive to ouabain, but sensitive to furosemide, is stimulated by Ang-(1-7) (68% by 10(-9) M), in a dose-dependent manner. This effect is due to an increase in Vmax, while the apparent affinity of the enzyme for Na+ is not modified. Saralasin, a general angiotensin receptor antagonist, abolishes the stimulation, demonstrating that the Ang-(1-7) effect is mediated by receptor. The Ang-(1-7) stimulatory effect is not changed by either PD 123319, an AT2 receptor antagonist, or A779, an Ang-(1-7) receptor antagonist. On the other hand, increasing the concentration of the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan from 10(-11) to 10(-9) M, reverses the Ang(1-7) stimulation completely. A further increase to 10(-3) M losartan reverses the Na+-ATPase activity to a level similar to that obtained with Ang-(1-7) (10(-9) M) alone. The stimulatory effect of Ang-(1-7) at 10(-9) M is similar to the effect of angiotensin II (AG II) alone. However, when the two peptides are both present, Na+-ATPase activity is restored to control values. These data suggest that Ang-(1-7) selectively modulates the Na+-ATPase activity present in basolateral membranes of kidney proximal tubules through a losartan-sensitive receptor. This receptor is probably different from the receptor involved in the stimulation of the Na+-ATPase activity by angiotensin II.
The molecular mechanisms involved in the Ang-(1-7) [angiotensin-(1-7)] effect on sodium renal excretion remain to be determined. In a previous study, we showed that Ang-(1-7) has a biphasic effect on the proximal tubule Na+-ATPase activity, with the stimulatory effect mediated by the AT1 receptor. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms involved in the inhibition of the Na+-ATPase by Ang-(1-7). All experiments were carried out in the presence of 0.1 nM losartan to block the AT1 receptor-mediated stimulation. In this condition, Ang-(1-7) at 0.1 nM inhibited the Na+-ATPase activity of the proximal tubule by 54%. This effect was reversed by 10 nM PD123319, a specific antagonist of the AT2 receptor, and by 1 muM GDP[beta-S] (guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate), an inhibitor of G protein. Ang-(1-7) at 0.1 M induced [35S]GTP[S] (guanosine 5'-[gamma-[35S]thio]triphosphate) binding and 1 mug/ml pertussis toxin, an inhibitor of G(i/o) protein, reversed the Ang-(1-7) effect. Furthermore, it was observed that the inhibitory effect of Ang-(1-7) on the Na+-ATPase activity was completely reversed by 0.1 microM LY83583, an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase, and by 2 muM KT5823, a PKG (protein kinase G) inhibitor, and was mimicked by 10 nM d-cGMP (dibutyryl cGMP). Ang-(1-7) increased the PKG activity by 152% and this effect was abolished by 10 nM PD123319 and 0.1 microM LY83583. Taken together, these data indicate that Ang-(1-7) inhibits the proximal tubule Na+-ATPase by interaction with the AT2 receptor that subsequently activates the G(i/o) protein/cGMP/PKG pathway.
We showed previously that angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] reversed stimulation of proximal tubule Na+-ATPase promoted by angiotensin II (Ang II) through a D-ala(7)-Ang-(1-7) (A779)-sensitive receptor. Here we investigated the signaling pathway coupled to this receptor. According to our data, Ang-(1-7) produces a MAS-mediated reversal of Ang II-stimulated Na+-ATPase by a Gs/PKA pathway because: (1) the Ang-(1-7) effect is reversed by GDPbetaS, an inhibitor of trimeric G protein and Gs polyclonal antibody. Cholera toxin, an activator of Gs protein, mimicked it; (2) in the presence of Ang II, Ang-(1-7) increased the PKA activity 10-fold; (3) the peptide inhibitor of PKA blocked the Ang-(1-7) effect on Ang II-stimulated Na+-ATPase; (4) Ang-(1-7) reverses the Ang II-stimulated PKC activity; (5) cAMP mimicked the Ang-(1-7) effect on the Ang II-stimulated Na+-ATPase. Our results provide new understanding about the signaling mechanisms coupled to MAS receptor-mediated renal Ang-(1-7) effects.
The cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) is a Cl − channel. Mutations of this transporter lead to a defect of chloride secretion by epithelial cells causing the Cystic Fibrosis disease (CF). In spite of the high expression of CFTR in the kidney, patients with CF do not show major renal dysfunction, but it is known that both the urinary excretion of drugs and the renal capacity to concentrate and dilute urine is deficient. CFTR mRNA is expressed in all nephron segments and its protein is involved with chloride secretion in the distal tubule, and the principal cells of the cortical (CCD) and medullary (IMCD) collecting ducts. Several studies have demonstrated that CFTR does not only transport Cl − but also secretes ATP and, thus, controls other conductances such as Na + (ENaC) and K + (ROMK2) channels, especially in CCD. In the polycystic kidney the secretion of chloride through CFTR contributes to the cyst enlargement. This review is focused on the role of CFTR in the kidney and the implications of extracellular volume regulators, such as hormones, on its function and expression.
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