AIMTo determine the prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated gastric carcinomas in the North Region of Portugal and to study its clinicopathological characteristics.METHODSWe have performed a retrospective study including a total of 179 consecutive patients with gastric cancer (GC) submitted to gastrectomy during 2011 at the Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto. Clinical and pathological data was collected from individual clinical records and inserted on a database with unique codification. Tumour tissues were collected from the institutional tumour bank. EBV was detected by in situ hybridization for the detection of EBV-encoded small RNAs (EBERs) and EBV latent proteins (LMP1 and LMP2A) were detected by immunohistochemistry.RESULTSThe analysis showed that EBV-associated gastric carcinomas (EBVaGC) represents 8.4% (15/179) of all GC cases, with a significant differential distribution among histological types (P < 0.001): 100% (3/3) of medullary carcinomas, 100% (1/1) of adenosquamous carcinoma, 8.7% (8/92) of tubular adenocarcinomas, 8.0% (2/25) of mixed carcinomas and 2% (1/51) in poorly cohesive carcinomas. The analysis revealed a higher predominance of EBVaGC in the upper third and middle (cardia, fundus and body) of the stomach (P = 0.041), a significant lower number of regional lymph nodes invasion (P = 0.025) and a tendency for better prognosis (P = 0.222). EBV latent protein expression revealed that all EBVaGC cases were LMP1-negative, nevertheless 6 cases (40%) expressed LPM2A, which reveals that these cases show a distinct EBV-Latency profile (latency II-like).CONCLUSIONEBVaGC represents 8.4% of all GC in the North Region of Portugal. The EBV-infected patients have specific clinic-pathological features that should be further explored to develop new strategies of management and treatment.
-Context -The first degree relatives of celiac patients represent a high risk group for the development of this disorder, so their screening may be crucial in the prevention of long-term complications. Objective -In order to determine the prevalence of celiac disease in a group of first degree relatives of children with proven gluten intolerance, we conducted a prospective study that consisted in the screening of celiac disease, using a capillary immunoassay rapid test that allows a qualitative detection of IgA antibody to human recombinant tissue transglutaminase (IgA-TTG). Methods -When the screening test was positive subjects were advised to proceed with further investigation. The screening test was performed in 268 first degree relatives (143 mothers, 89 fathers, 36 siblings) corresponding to 163 children with celiac disease. Results -Screening test was positive in 12 relatives (4.5%), of which 1 refused to continue the investigation. In the remaining 11 relatives celiac disease was diagnosed in 7 cases (2.6%, 5 mothers, 2 fathers) who had a median age of 39 years (27-56 years), mild gastrointestinal symptoms, high titre of IgA-TTG and histology abnormalities confirming the diagnosis. All these patients are currently on a gluten-free diet. Conclusion -The prevalence of celiac disease among first degree relatives (2.6%) was 5 times higher than that in the general population. Although the recommendations for screening asymptomatic high risk groups, such as first degree relatives, are not unanimous the early diagnosis is crucial in preventing complications, including nutritional deficiency and cancer. HEADINGS -Celiac disease. Family. Child.
Focal metatarsal sinus tracts ('fistulation') are, to the authors knowledge, reported for the first time in a Weimaraner. The six-year-old, entire male had a five-month history of two symmetrical, well-demarcated sinuses on the plantar aspect of each metatarsus. The area surrounding each pair of sinuses was slightly fluctuant and a serosanguineous discharge could be expressed. Cytological examination of the discharge was characteristic of pyogranulomatous inflammation. Bacterial culture showed the material to be sterile. Examination of a skin biopsy revealed a severe inflammatory reaction involving the dermal collagen, with an infiltrate of neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells and multi-nucleated giant cells, with some micro-pustule formation. Treatment with ciclosporin induced total remission. Reduction of the dose of ciclosporin resulted in recurrence of the physical signs with further remission on re-introduction of the original dosage. This is the first report of the use of ciclosporin to control this condition.
ResumoNeste artigo, apresentamos uma análise dos textos de materiais curriculares educativos sob as lentes da sociologia de Basil Bernstein. O conceito de classificação, elaborado por Bernstein, foi utilizado para analisar as relações entre discursos e as relações entre espaços que são expressas nos textos dos materiais curriculares educativos. Em particular, focalizamos materiais curriculares educativos sobre práticas pedagógicas em aulas da disciplina Matemática. A análise documental, numa abordagem qualitativa, foi utilizada no estudo. Os resultados apontam que tais materiais sugerem, por meio de seus textos, um esbatimento das fronteiras entre os discursos e entre os espaços utilizados pelos sujeitos. Assim, a dimensão estrutural da prática pedagógica foi constituída nos materiais curriculares educativos sobre modelagem matemática por imagens flexibilizadoras.Palavras-chave: Dimensão Estrutural. Materiais Curriculares Educativos. Prática Pedagógica. AbstractIn this paper, we presented an analysis of educational curriculum materials' texts through the sociology's lens of Basil Bernstein. The concept of classification, prepared by Bernstein, was used to analyze the relationship between discourses and relations between spaces that are expressed in the texts of the educational curriculum materials. In particular, we focused on educational curriculum materials about pedagogical practices in mathematics classes. The documental analysis, in a qualitative approach, was used in this study. The results show that such materials suggest, by mean of its texts, a dimming of the borders between the discourses and between the spaces that were used by subjects. Thus, the structural dimension of pedagogical practice was constituted in the educational curriculum materials about mathematical modeling by flexible images. Diferentes condições são construídas a partir de diferentes princípios da prática pedagógica. Tais condições ajudam a dar sentido e coerência a uma maneira dentre muitas possibilidades de ensino, ajudando, assim, a definir um espaço de ensino. Ao fazê-lo, os materiais curriculares educativos oferecem uma representação das possibilidades de organização do espaço de sala de aula e de como os discursos que estarão atrelados a esta prática podem ser organizados e valorizados por seus participantes.Em outras palavras, os materiais curriculares educativos podem oferecer, por meio de seus textos, uma "imagem" da prática pedagógica que se pretende comunicar. O termo texto 2 2 Neste estudo, o termo discurso é utilizado com a mesma conotação de texto. Assim, texto será utilizado apenas quando nos referirmos aos discursos nos materiais curriculares educativos. Entre os extremos de classificações fortes e fracas e de enquadramentos fortes e fracos é possível haver gradações. Bernstein (1990Bernstein ( , 2000 utiliza o símbolo + (mais) e (menos) para se referir às alterações nos valores da classificação e do enquadramento, podendo ser muito forte (++), forte (+), fraco (), muito fraco ( ). No entanto, as variações (muit...
ResumoNo presente artigo, analisamos como professores operam a recontextualização dos textos dos materiais curriculares educativos na prática pedagógica e quais princípios regulam a operacionalização da recontextualização. A pesquisa realizada foi de natureza qualitativa e os dados foram coletados por meio da observação, entrevistas e documentos. A análise desses dados foi ancorada em constructos da teoria dos códigos de Basil Bernstein (1990Bernstein ( , 2000 e sugere que a tarefa do material curricular educativo nem sempre é implementada de acordo com a intenção inicial dos seus elaboradores, ou seja, os professores operam a recontextualização dos textos dos materiais curriculares educativos para atender a princípios presentes na prática pedagógica. A identificação desses princípios indicam benefícios na produção de novos materiais curriculares educativos, materiais instrucionais e guias para professores. Palavras-chave:Materiais Curriculares Educativos. Prática Pedagógica. Recontextualização. AbstractIn this article, we analyze how teachers operate recontextualization of educational curriculum materials texts in teaching practices and principles that govern the operation of recontextualization. The research was qualitative in
Genotyping techniques are valuable tools for the epidemiologic study of Staphylococcus aureus infections in the hospital setting. Pulsedfield gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is the current method of choice for S. aureus strain typing. However, the method is laborious and requires expensive equipment. In the present study, we evaluated the natural polymorphism of the genomic 16S-23S rRNA region for genotyping purpose, by PCR-based ribotyping. Three primer pairs were tested to determine the size of amplicons produced and to obtain better discrimination with agar gel electrophoresis and ethidium bromide staining. The resolution of the typing system was determined using sets of bacteria obtained from clinical specimens from a large tertiary care hospital. These included DNA from three samples obtained from a bacteremic patient, six strains with known and diverse PGFE patterns, and 88 strains collected over a 3-month period in the same hospital. Amplification patterns obtained from samples from the same patient were identical, and PFGE from samples known to be different produced three genotypes. Amplification of DNA from 61 methicillinresistant isolates produced only one pattern. Methicillin-sensitive strains yielded a diversity of patterns, pointing to a true polyclonal distribution throughout the hospital (22 unique patterns from 27 strains). Computer-based software can be used to differentiate among identifiable strains, given the low number of bands and good characterization of PCR products. PCR-based ribotyping can be a useful technique for genotyping methicillin-sensitive S. aureus strains, but is of limited value for methicillin-resistant strains.
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