Background: Signaling pathways underlying beneficial effects of extracorporeal shock wave treatment (ESWT) remain to be completely elucidated. Results: ESWT enhances cell proliferation in vitro and wound healing in vivo. Conclusion: ESWT-induced ATP release and subsequent extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation are prerequisites for enhanced cell proliferation and wound healing. Significance: Deciphering the involved signaling cascades provides the basis for ESWT as clinical wound healing treatment.
Decellularization of native blood vessels is a promising technology to generate 3D biological scaffolds for vascular grafting. Blood vessel decellularization has been performed in previous studies under various experimental conditions, that complicates comparison and optimization of suitable protocols. The goal of this work was to systematically compare the decellularization and recellularization efficacy of 5 different protocols utilizing the detergents sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium deoxycholate (SDC), CHAPS and TritonX-100 together with DNA-removing enzymes on porcine vena cava in a perfusion bioreactor setup. Additionally, we tested the effect of DNase on the extracellular matrix (ECM) properties. We found that all protocols could efficiently decellularize blood vessels. Mechanical strength, collagen preservation and ECM integrity were similar among all tested detergents, yet TritonX protocols required long-term DNase application for complete decellularization. However, TritonX-based protocols showed the greatest recellularization efficacy with HUVECs in vitro. Furthermore, we developed a novel protocol for TritonX which improved recellularization and reduced total process time and ECM stiffness compared to previous protocols. SDS, SDC and CHAPS based protocols had a lower recellularization potential. In conclusion, decellularization of blood vessels can be achieved with all tested reagents, but TritonX treated ECM can be most efficiently recellularized with endothelial cells.
Recent advancements in the field of musculoskeletal tissue engineering have raised an increasing interest in the regeneration of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). It is the aim of this article to review the current research efforts and highlight promising tissue engineering strategies. The four main components of tissue engineering also apply in several ACL regeneration research efforts. Scaffolds from biological materials, biodegradable polymers and composite materials are used. The main cell sources are mesenchymal stem cells and ACL fibroblasts. In addition, growth factors and mechanical stimuli are applied. So far, the regenerated ACL constructs have been tested in a few animal studies and the results are encouraging. The different strategies, from in vitro ACL regeneration in bioreactor systems to bio-enhanced repair and regeneration, are under constant development. We expect considerable progress in the near future that will result in a realistic option for ACL surgery soon.
Abdominal wall hernia is a recurrent issue world-wide and requires the implantation of over 1 million meshes per year. Because permanent meshes such as polypropylene and polyester are not free of complications after implantation, many mesh modifications and new functionalities have been investigated over the last decade. Indeed, mesh optimization is the focus of intense development and the biomaterials utilized are now envisioned as being bioactive substrates that trigger various physiological processes in order to prevent complications and to promote tissue integration. In this context, it is of paramount interest to review the most relevant bio-functionalities being brought to new meshes and to open new avenues for the innovative development of the next generation of meshes with enhanced properties for functional abdominal wall hernia repair.
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