The use of multimedia has often been suggested as a teaching tool in foreign language teaching and learning. In foreign language education, exciting new multimedia applications have appeared over the last years, especially for young learners, but many of these do not seem to produce the desired effect in language development. This article looks into the theories of dual-coding (DCT) and multimedia learning (CTML) as the theoretical basis for the development of more effective digital tools with the use of films and subtitling. Bilingual dual-coding is also presented as a means of indirect access from one language to another and the different types of subtitling are explored regarding their effectiveness, especially in the field of short-term and long-term vocabulary recall and development. Finally, the article looks into some new alternative audiovisual tools that actively engage learners with films and subtitling, tailored towards vocabulary learning.The dual-coding theory (DCT) is a general cognition theory that has been directly applied to literacy and language learning. The theory was proposed by Allan Paivio in 1971 and explains the powerful effects of mental imagery on the mind and memory. In his theory, Paivio originally accounted for verbal and nonverbal influences in memory, but researchers soon started applying it in other areas of cognition . According to this theory, a person can learn new materials using verbal associations or visual imagery but the combination of both is more successful in learning . The dual-coding theory states that the brain uses both visual and verbal information to represent information , but this information is processed differently along two distinct channels in the human mind, creating different representations for information that each channel processes. The existing two coding systems are the verbal system and the nonverbal/visual system. These two coding systems interact, and this interaction results in better recall [10,13]. The verbal system stores linguistic information/units (such as text, sound, or even motor experience such as sign language) in sequential units called "logogens." The non-verbal/visual system processes visual information/units (such as symbols, pictures, or videos) and keeps them in units called "imagens." The terms "logogen" and "imagen" refer respectively to representational units of verbal and nonverbal information that produce already existing mental words and images and can function unconsciously to improve cognitive performance . According to Paivio  and Clark and Paivio , there are three different processing levels that take place within or between verbal and nonverbal/visual systems: representational, referential, and associative processing. The two systems are linked together through referential connections (Figure 1).
The academic excellence of universities around the globe has always been a matter of extended study and so has the quality of an institution’s presence in the World Wide Web. The purpose of this research is to study the extent to which a university’s academic excellence is related to the quality of its web presence. In order to achieve this, a method was devised that quantified the website quality and search engine optimization (SEO) performance of the university websites of the top 100 universities in the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) Shanghai list. A variety of tools was employed to measure and test each website and produced a Web quality ranking, an SEO performance ranking, as well as a combined overall web ranking for each one. Comparing these rankings with the ARWU shows that academic excellence is moderately correlated with website quality, but SEO performance is not. Moreover, the overall web ranking also shows a moderate correlation with ARWU which seems to be positively influenced by website quality and negatively by SEO performance. Conclusively, the results of the research indicate that universities place particular emphasis on issues concerning website quality, while the utilization of SEO does not appear to be of equal importance, indicating possible room for improvement in this area.
Using a representative sample of 635 active professional journalists, this study is one of the first to examine the prevalence of non-lethal workplace victimization experiences and the extent of fear of crime among journalists. The results indicated a relatively high prevalence of physical victimization, an exceptionally high prevalence of psychological abuse and an average prevalence of property victimization among professional journalists. Additionally, it was found that journalists overall had relatively low levels of fear of crime at work. The analysis also revealed the sociodemographic and employment characteristics of professional journalists who were more closely associated with different types of victimization and fear of crime at work.
This paper reviews research literature in the area of student engagement and motivation and discusses the findings of an experiment which examined the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on the learning process of foreign language vocabulary with the use of a film extract. The extract was part of an online specially-built platform designed to enhance students' engagement through a series of interactive activities. The article focuses on the relationship between motivation and engagement and looks into the differences in performance between students who are more intrinsically or extrinsically motivated. Based on our findings, we argue that intrinsic motivation leads to more active engagement on the part of learners, which is a pathway to deeper learning and better academic achievements in foreign language learning.
The English language is the most dominant language in the Western world and its influence can be noticed in every aspect of human communication. It’s increasing diffusion, especially since the turn of the century, is hard to measure with conventional means. The present research studies the use of language in websites of European Union (EU) member states, in order to collect data about the prevalence of the English language in the different countries and regions of the European Union. To achieve a realistic representation of today’s landscape of the European Web, this study uses a vast population of websites and a representative sampling size and methodology. By analyzing and processing the findings from over 100,000 websites from every country in the EU, a solid foundation is set that is used to explore the dominance of the English language in the European World Wide Web in general. This is the first study that examines the presence of English content in the websites of all EU member countries and provides statistical evidence regarding the ratio of English content availability for each country. Conclusively, the results of the research demonstrate that the English language is available on more than one quarter of all websites of non-English speaking EU member states. Moreover, it is available in the vast majority of multilingual and bilingual websites, while at the same time being the only language that is available in a number of monolingual websites. In addition, it is shown preference over the national language in a significant number of cases. A moderate negative correlation is found between a member state’s population and the availability of English in these countries’ websites and the same holds true for a member state’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Both these correlations indicate that smaller countries tend to provide more content in English in order to establish a stronger presence in the international environment. Taking into account the role of language in the expression of national identity, this study provides data and insights which may contribute to the discussion about the changes underway in the national identity of EU member states.
The paper at hand seeks to investigate whether virtual reality and distance learning tools can be combined in order to effectively support the learning process. This research deviates from related research works which study whether the distance learning tools and / or three-dimensional virtual learning environments can support existing learning communities and complement the traditional lesson in the classroom. Contrary to those studies, this one focuses on open learning communities whose members have the opportunity to meet only online and investigates whether the existence of a 3D environment can be combined smoothly and productively with the already established tools for online learning communities support. Firstly, this paper presents the characteristics of the 3D platform that was used and those of a web-based e-learning platform, and focuses on the points of potential interconnection between them. Secondly, it describes the key points of the e-learning community that was studied and the difficulties experienced during the implementation of the project. Finally, it presents details of the procedure followed for the evaluation of this effort and summarizes the conclusions reached.Πεπίληψη Η παξνύζα εξγαζία πξνζπαζεί λα κειεηήζεη ην θαηά πόζν κπνξνύλ λα ζπλδπαζηνύλ ε εηθνληθή πξαγκαηηθόηεηα θαη ηα εξγαιεία εμ απνζηάζεσο εθπαίδεπζεο γηα ηελ ππνζηήξημε ηεο καζεζηαθήο δηαδηθαζίαο. Η έξεπλα δηαθνξνπνηείηαη από ζρεηηθέο εξεπλεηηθέο εξγαζίεο πνπ κειεηνύλ θαηά πόζν ηα εξγαιεία εμ απνζηάζεσο εθπαίδεπζεο ή/θαη ηα ηξηζδηάζηαηα εηθνληθά πεξηβάιινληα κάζεζεο κπνξνύλ λα ππνζηεξίμνπλ ππάξρνπζεο καζεζηαθέο θνηλόηεηεο θαη λα ζπκπιεξώζνπλ ην κάζεκα ζηελ αίζνπζα. Σε αληίζεζε κε απηέο, εζηηάδεη ζε αλνηθηέο θνηλόηεηεο κάζεζεο ηα κέιε ησλ νπνίσλ έρνπλ ηε δπλαηόηεηα λα ζπλαληώληαη κόλν ειεθηξνληθά θαη κειεηά θαηά πόζν ε ύπαξμε ελόο ηξηζδηάηαηνπ πεξηβάιινληνο κπνξεί λα ζπλδπαζηεί νκαιά θαη παξαγσγηθά κε ηα παξαδνζηαθά εξγαιεία ππνζηήξημεο ειεθηξνληθώλ θνηλνηήησλ κάζεζεο. Η εξγαζία παξνπζηάδεη θαηαξρήλ ηα ραξαθηεξηζηηθά ηεο ηξηζδηάηαηεο πιαηθόξκαο πνπ ρξεζηκνπνηήζεθε θαη απηά ηεο πιαηθόξκαο ειεθηξνληθήο κάζεζεο θαη εζηηάδεη ζηα πηζαλά ζεκεία κεηαμύ ηνπο ζύλδεζεο. Αθνινύζσο παξνπζηάδεη ηηο ηδηαηηεξόηεηεο ηεο ειεθηξνληθήο καζεζηαθήο θνηλόηεηαο πνπ κειεηήζεθε θαη ηηο δπζθνιίεο πνπ εκθαλίζηεθαλ θαηά ηελ πινπνίεζε ηνπ εγρεηξήκαηνο. Τέινο SECTION A: theoretical papers, original research and scientific articles 28 παξαζέηεη ζηνηρεία γηα ηε δηαδηθαζία πνπ αθνινπζήζεθε γηα ηελ αμηνιόγεζε ηεο πξνζπάζεηαο απηήο θαη ζπλνςίδεη ηα ζπκπεξάζκαηα πνπ πξνέθπςαλ.Λέξειρ-κλειδιά: web-based LMS, moodle and sloodle, 3D VR environments 2. Related work The aim of virtual learning communities is to collaboratively improve knowledge in the field of expertise of the community. In the case of open learning communities everyone is allowed to participate and either offer or consume the collective knowledge (Kommers et al, 2003). Although e-learning (distant learning) approaches are gaining the hype, since they provide synchronous means of interaction between stude...
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