In Klinefelter syndrome, a mild Leydig cell dysfunction is present from early childhood in most cases and persists throughout puberty. Sertoli cell function is normal until mid puberty, when a dramatic impairment is observed.
The Triptorelin test had high accuracy for the differential diagnosis of CPP vs PT in girls providing a valid alternative to the classical GnRH test. This test also allowed a comprehensive evaluation of the pituitary-ovarian axis.
BackgroundIn girls with Idiopathic Central Precocious Puberty (ICPP) concern has been raised by the potential impact of GnRH-analogues (GnRHa) treatment on body weight. We evaluated the effect of GnRHa on Body Mass Index (BMI) in girls with ICPP according to weight status at diagnosis.MethodsOne hundred seventeen ICPP girls were divided according to pretreatment weight status in: normal weight (NW), overweight (OW) and obese (OB). BMI at one and two years of treatment was assessed. BMI-SDS of 60 patients who reached adult height (AH) was compared to that of 33 ICPP untreated girls.ResultsNW girls significantly increased their baseline BMI-SDS at 1 and 2 years of treatment. OW girls only had a significant increment at one year of treatment while OB girls showed no BMI-SDS change. Patients evaluated at AH (at least four years after GnRHa withdrawal) showed a significant decrease on BMI compared to baseline and a significantly lower BMI than the untreated group.ConclusionIn ICPP girls the BMI increase under GnRHa was inversely related to the pretreatment weight status. In the long term follow-up, no detrimental effect of GnRHa on body weight was observed. BMI-SDS was lower in treated than in untreated girls.
SUMMARYAll malignant testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) of adult men are preceded by an in situ stage (CIS) of protracted evolution. The adult CIS is well characterized, but there is debate on the phenotype of infantile CIS, its distinction from delayed maturation of germ cells and prognostic potential. A large series of 43 patients with Disorders of Sex Development (DSD) and dysgenetic testes (90% ranging from neonates to 12 years, mean age 4.7 years), was studied by quantifying dysgenetic features, degree of germ cell abnormalities/atypia (GCA), expression of OCT 3/4 (a pluripotency-undifferentiation marker), germ cell ploidy and evolution to CIS and invasive TGCT. Findings were compared with those of normal testes. The type of gonads present defined three groups of patients: bilateral testes (BT-DSD, n = 21), one testis and one streak gonad (CT-DSD, C for combined, n = 13), and ovarian-testicular combinations (OT-DSD, n = 9). There were 5 boys with infantile CIS, bilateral in 3 (total of 8 infantile CIS) and two patients with adult CIS, bilateral in one (total of 3 adult CIS). Two patients had bilateral seminomas one at 12-17 and the other at 23 years. Histological dysgenesis was significantly higher in CT-DSD (p < 0.05), that had only 1 CIS. The highest frequency of GCA was in BT-DSD (p < 0.05), which coincided with a total of 11CIS + Seminomas. In all patients, aneuploidy was significantly higher (63%) than diploidy (p < 0.02), and GCA were more frequent in aneuploid than in diploid samples (p < 0.02). All CIS and TGCT were OCT 3/4 positive. Finally, there was a significant association between the triad Aneuploidy + GCA + OCT 3/4 positivity and the incidence of CIS (Fisher Exact test p < 0.002, relative risk 7.0). The degree of testicular dysgenesis (derived from abnormal organization of Sertoli cells in fetal testicular cords) is inversely related to the incidence of CIS. Our data demonstrate that the combined use of OCT 3/4 expression, quantification of germ cell abnormalities-atypia and ploidy in dysgenetic testes can satisfactorily identify infantile CIS with high risk of malignant evolution and set it aside from delayed germ cell maturation with lower or nil neoplastic potential.
Context Loss-of-function mutations of makorin RING finger protein 3 (MKRN3) are the most common monogenic cause of familial central precocious puberty (CPP). Objective To describe the clinical and hormonal features of a large cohort of patients with CPP due to MKRN3 mutations and compare the characteristics of different types of genetic defects. Methods Multiethnic cohort of 716 patients with familial or idiopathic CPP screened for MKRN3 mutations using Sanger sequencing. A group of 156 Brazilian girls with idiopathic CPP (ICPP) was used as control group. Results Seventy-one patients (45 girls and 26 boys from 36 families) had 18 different loss-of-function MKRN3 mutations. Eight mutations were classified as severe (70% of patients). Among the 71 patients, first pubertal signs occurred at 6.2 ± 1.2 years in girls and 7.1 ± 1.5 years in boys. Girls with MKRN3 mutations had a shorter delay between puberty onset and first evaluation and higher follicle-stimulating hormone levels than ICPP. Patients with severe MKRN3 mutations had a greater bone age advancement than patients with missense mutations (2.3 ± 1.6 vs 1.6 ± 1.4 years, P = .048), and had higher basal luteinizing hormone levels (2.2 ± 1.8 vs 1.1 ± 1.1 UI/L, P = .018) at the time of presentation. Computational protein modeling revealed that 60% of the missense mutations were predicted to cause protein destabilization. Conclusion Inherited premature activation of the reproductive axis caused by loss-of-function mutations of MKRN3 is clinically indistinct from ICPP. However, the type of genetic defect may affect bone age maturation and gonadotropin levels.
Background Puberty is associated with a physiological decline in insulin sensitivity (IS). Overweight (OW) and obesity (OB) are common among girls with central precocious puberty (CPP). CPP is considered a risk factor for metabolic diseases. The aim of this study was to assess surrogate measures of IS, body mass index (BMI) and other metabolic parameters in CPP girls at diagnosis and during treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa). Methods We present a prospective longitudinal study of CPP girls. The standard oral glucose tolerance test, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), whole-body IS index (ISI) and fasting lipid profiles were evaluated at diagnosis, and at 6 and 12 months of treatment. Results Nineteen CPP girls were included; 17 were evaluable. At baseline, seven patients had normal weight (NW), five were OW and five were OB. During GnRHa treatment no significant changes were observed in BMI, HOMA-IR or ISI when considering the whole group. Whereas, when we analyzed patients according to BMI status, in NW patients, BMI increased significantly with no changes in HOMA-IR or ISI along treatment. In the OW/OB group, no significant differences were observed in BMI, HOMA-IR or ISI. Conclusions Girls with CPP showed a high frequency of OW/OB and a high prevalence of IR. GnRHa did not affect BMI, IS or the lipid profile when considering the whole cohort of patients. However, there was an increase in BMI in NW girls but not in OW/OB patients.
We assessed the predictive value of anatomical findings and karyotype for establishing a diagnostic orientation in patients with disorders of sex development (DSD). We performed a retrospective chart analysis of 228 patients, grouped into 4 categories: 46,XX DSD, non-dysgenetic testicular DSD, dysgenetic testicular DSD and ovotesticular DSD. Degree of virilisation, presence of vagina, presence of palpable gonads, size of gonads and a plain karyotype was available for all cases. 46,XX DSD due to congenital adrenal hyperplasia counted for 59.2% of the cases, non-dysgenetic testicular DSD for 13.6%, dysgenetic testicular DSD for 21.5% and ovotesticular DSD for 5.7%. Excluding congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), a karyotype with at least one 46,XX cell line had a high diagnostic efficiency for ovotesticular DSD. In these patients, anatomical findings were not as useful to predict the gonadal phenotype. The existence of a 45,X cell line predicted with very high efficiency dysgenetic testicular DSD. Genital palpation was only partially helpful to predict the existence of testicular tissue. Non-dysgenetic testicular DSD could be ruled out with high efficiency in patients with an abnormal karyotype. Anatomical findings were helpful in 46,XY patients: palpated masses predicted non-dysgenetic testes with high accuracy. In all cases assessment of gonadal volume was less useful.
Background: Estradiol at baseline or after a classical gonadotropin-releasing hormone test did not reflect ovarian steroidogenesis in central precocious puberty (CPP) girls. Aims: To evaluate estradiol response to depot triptorelin, both at start and during therapy to determine how active ovarian steroidogenesis is at pubertal stage and under therapy. Methods: A prospective study was performed in 43 CPP girls. Serum luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone at 3 h (LH-3h, FSH-3h) and estradiol at 24 h (E2-24h) after injection of depot triptorelin 3.75 mg were measured, at first dose and at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months of treatment. Results: E2-24h after depot triptorelin was >100 pg/ml after the first dose. Estradiol response (E2-24h) fell to levels <14 pg/ml in 78 out of 82 follow-up visits along 2 years of therapy. Concomitantly, LH-3h and FSH-3h were <4.0 and <6.3 IU/l, respectively. In 4 patients with inadequate treatment, E2-24h, LH-3h and FSH-3h rose to pubertal values similar to those observed at first dose. Conclusion: Estradiol (<14 pg/ml) assessment 24 h after depot triptorelin administration is a reliable and simple manner to confirm ovarian suppression in CPP girls during treatment.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.