The TCN2 776C → G polymorphism is negatively associated with Alzheimer's type dementia, suggesting a protective role against the disease in subjects with the 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 1298AA genotype.
Adenosine A1 and cannabinoid CB1 receptors are highly expressed in hippocampus where they trigger similar transduction pathways. We investigated how the combined acute activation of A1 and CB1 receptors modulates cAMP accumulation in rat hippocampal slices. The CB1 agonist WIN55212-2 (0.3–30 μM) decreased forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation with an EC50 of 6.6 ± 2.7 μM and an E
max of 31% ± 2%, whereas for the A1 agonist, N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA, 10–150 nM), an EC50 of 35 ± 19 nM, and an E
max of 29% ± 5 were obtained. The combined inhibitory effect of WIN55212-2 (30 μM) and CPA (100 nM) on cAMP accumulation was 41% ± 6% (n = 4), which did not differ (P > 0.7) from the sum of the individual effects of each agonist (43% ± 8%) but was different (P < 0.05) from the effects of CPA or WIN55212-2 alone. Preincubation with CPA (100 nM) for 95 min caused desensitization of adenosine A1 activity, which did not modify the effect of WIN55212-2 (30 μM) on cAMP accumulation. In conclusion, the combined effect of CB1 and A1 receptors on cAMP formation is additive and CB1 receptor activity is not affected by short-term A1 receptor desensitization.
Both adenosine A1 receptor and cGMP inhibit synaptic transmission at the hippocampus and recently it was found that A1 receptor increased cGMP levels in hippocampus, but the role of cGMP on A1 receptor-mediated inhibition of synaptic transmission remains to be established. In the present work we investigated if blocking the NOS/sGC/cGMP/PKG pathway using nitric oxide synthase (NOS), protein kinase G (PKG), and soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) inhibitors modify the A1 receptor effect on synaptic transmission. Neurotransmission was evaluated by measuring the slope of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) evoked by electrical stimulation at hippocampal slices. N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA, 15 nM), a selective A1 receptor agonist, reversibly decreased the fEPSPs by 54 ± 5%. Incubation of the slices with an inhibitor of NOS (L-NAME, 200 μM) decreased the CPA effect on fEPSPs by 57 ± 9% in female rats. In males, ODQ (10 μM), an sGC inhibitor, decreased the CPA inhibitory effect on fEPSPs by 23 ± 6%, but only when adenosine deaminase (ADA,1 U/ml) was present; similar results were found in females, where ODQ decreased CPA-induced inhibition of fEPSP slope by 23 ± 7%. In male rats, the presence of the PKG inhibitor (KT5823, 1 nM) decreased the CPA effect by 45.0 ± 9%; similar results were obtained in females, where KT5823 caused a 32 ± 9% decrease on the CPA effect. In conclusion, the results suggest that the inhibitory action of adenosine A1 receptors on synaptic transmission at hippocampus is, in part, mediated by the NOS/sGC/cGMP/PKG pathway.
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