Cellular senescence is characterized by a permanent cell-cycle arrest and a pro-inflammatory secretory phenotype, and can be induced by a variety of stimuli, including ionizing radiation, oxidative stress, and inflammation. In endothelial cells, this phenomenon might contribute to vascular disease. Plasma levels of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) are increased in age-related and chronic conditions such as atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and Crohn’s disease. Although TNFα is a known activator of the central inflammatory mediator NF-κB, and can induce the intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the question whether TNFα can induce senescence has not been answered conclusively. Here, we investigated the effect of prolonged TNFα exposure on the fate of endothelial cells and found that such treatment induced premature senescence. Induction of endothelial senescence was prevented by the anti-oxidant N-acetyl cysteine, as well as by plumericin and PHA-408, inhibitors of the NF-κB pathway. Our results indicated that prolonged TNFα exposure could have detrimental consequences to endothelial cells by causing senescence and, therefore, chronically increased TNFα levels might possibly contribute to the pathology of chronic inflammatory diseases by driving premature endothelial senescence.
Background GATA3 is a dual-zinc finger transcription factor that regulates gene expression in many developing tissues. In the kidney, GATA3 is essential for ureteric bud branching, and mice without it fail to develop kidneys. In humans, autosomal dominant GATA3 mutations can cause renal aplasia as part of the hypoparathyroidism, renal dysplasia, deafness (HDR) syndrome that includes mesangioproliferative GN. This suggests that GATA3 may have a previously unrecognized role in glomerular development or injury.Methods To determine GATA3's role in glomerular development or injury, we assessed GATA3 expression in developing and mature kidneys from Gata3 heterozygous ( + /2) knockout mice, as well as injured human and rodent kidneys.
The glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and extra-cellular matrix (ECM) are essential to maintain a functional interaction between the glomerular podocytes and the fenestrated endothelial cells in the formation of the slit diaphragm for the filtration of blood. Dysregulation of ECM homeostasis can cause Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Despite this central role, alterations in ECM composition during FSGS have not been analyzed in detail yet. Here, we characterized the ECM proteome changes in miR-193a-overexpressing mice, which suffer from FSGS due to suppression of Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1). By mass spectrometry we identified a massive activation of the acute phase response, especially the complement and fibrinogen pathways. Several protease inhibitors (ITIH1, SERPINA1, SERPINA3) were also strongly increased. Complementary analysis of RNA expression data from both miR-193a mice and human FSGS patients identified additional candidate genes also mainly involved in the acute phase response. In total, we identified more than 60 dysregulated, ECM-associated genes with potential relevance for FSGS progression. Our comprehensive analysis of a murine FSGS model and translational comparison with human data offers novel targets for FSGS therapy.
Prostate cancer (PCa) is a major concern in public health, with many genetically distinct subsets. Genomic alterations in PCa are extraordinarily complex, and both germline and somatic mutations are of great importance in the development of this tumor. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of genetic changes that can occur in the development of PCa and their role in potential therapeutic approaches. Various pathways and mechanisms proposed to play major roles in PCa are described in detail to provide an overview of current knowledge.
Optimal management of bladder cancer requires an accurate, standardised and timely pathological diagnosis, and close communication between surgeons and pathologists. Here, we provide an update on pathology reporting standards of transurethral resections of the bladder and cystectomies.
We reviewed recent literature, focusing on developments between 2013 and 2021.
Published reporting standards developed by pathology organizations have improved diagnosis and treatment. Tumor sub-staging and subtyping has gained increased attention. Lymph nodes continue to be an area of debate, and their staging has seen minor modifications. Several tasks, particularly regarding specimen preparation (“grossing”), are not yet standardized and offer opportunity for improvement. Molecular classification is rapidly evolving, but currently has only limited impact on management.
Pathological reporting of bladder cancer is continuously evolving and remains challenging in some areas. This review provides an overview of recent major developments, with a particular focus on published reporting standards.
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