Brewer's spent grain (BSG) could be tested as an alternative source of polyphenols in animal nutrition. Proper extraction and analytical methods are critical for quantification. Thus, extraction for BSG, corn silage, and brans of rice, corn, and wheat were studied for the highest yield of polyphenols. A method for 18 phenolic monomers by HPLC-DAD was developed, validated, and applied to samples. An aqueous solution of NaOH (0.75% w/v) using integral samples for extraction resulted in the highest values for colorimetric measurements in all analyzed sources. Method by maceration showed the highest phenolic yield when applied in corn silage and BSG. However, for brans the best method was microwave assisted. Results from HPLC-DAD analysis clearly showed that native structures of phenolic compounds were simplified to its monomers allowing quantification and sample discrimination. BSG had the highest concentration of polyphenols and could be a promising and innovative source for animal feed studies.
Pasture-finished beef is becoming more popular among consumers due to concerns related to fatty acid content and sustainable practices. The effects of finishing crossbred steers on legume-grass pasture comprised of oats, ryegrass, and clover (PAST), legume-grass pasture plus whole corn grain (WCG) supplementation (SUPP), and only with WCG (GRAIN) on fatty acids profile, volatile compounds, sensory, and texture attributes were studied. Pasture diets (PAST and SUPP) led to lower n-6/n-3 ratio (P < 0.001), and highest deposition of C18:2 cis-9 trans-11 (P < 0.001) in the lean. Beef from steers fed GRAIN had the highest values of volatile compounds associated with lipid oxidation. Off-flavor intensity was significantly greater on beef from steers fed GRAIN when compared to PAST. Overall, muscles from steers finished on PAST and SUPP showed similar attributes but differ when compared to GRAIN. The presence of forage is essential to improve fatty acid profile, decrease volatile compounds associated with lipid oxidation, and minimize off-flavor.
In order to evaluate the performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of culled ewes finished in pasture or exclusivelywith grain, 41 culled Polwarth ewes, were assigned to six treatments: RY (ryegrass pasture), RYGO (ryegrass and whole grain oats), RYGM (ryegrass and whole grain maize), GM (whole grain maize), GO (whole grain oats), GS (whole grain sorghum). The finishing systemof the ewes influenced weight gain,wherein the GM and GS treatments increased daily weight gain. The GO treatment decreased the dressing percentage. Nonetheless, a*, h*, pH, cooking loss and tenderness were similar across dietary treatments. Using principal component analysis, the variables C18:2n6, h*, n6/n3, TBARS, total lipids, L* and b* were assigned as characteristics of meat from the feedlot animals, while the pasture finishing system produced meat with higher CLA and n-3 fatty acids but lower TBARS values indicating lipid stability.
RESUMOO objetivo deste trabalho foi mensurar as perdas causadas pela condenação de órgãos suínos em matadouros sob fiscalização do serviço de inspeção municipal (SIM) em Santa Maria, RS durante 12 meses consecutivos. O estudo foi realizado através do levantamento de dados de matadouros do município de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, junto ao SIM. Os dados registrados foram o número de animais abatidos, número de órgãos condenados e principais lesões que levaram as condenações, no período de outubro de 2010 a setembro de 2011. Durante o período de avaliação, 6.193 animais foram abatidos. Observou-se que 5.511 órgãos foram condenados, com destaque as condenações por lesões de aspiração de sangue (n = 1.231), migração larval (n = 991) e cisto renal (n = 807). A pesquisa revelou que anualmente R$ 11.955,66 é desperdiçado com condenação de órgãos. A migração larval no fígado foi a principal lesão que contribuiu para os prejuízos econômicos, com perdas de R$ 8.919,00. Para minimizar as perdas econômicas é necessário agir nos pontos críticos de condenação, o principal ponto observado no estudo foi o descarte de fígado por migração larval.Palavras-chave: fígado, subprodutos, lesões, migração, larval, prejuízo financeiro ABSTRACTThis study aimed to measure the economic losses caused by the condemnation of swine organs in municipal slaughterhouses under the supervision of the municipal inspection system (MIS) from the city of Santa Maria-RS during 12 months in a row. The study was conducted by collecting data from slaughterhouses in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in MIS. The registered data took into account the number of animals slaughtered, number of condemned organs and major lesions that led to condemnation from October 2010 to September 2011. During the evaluation period, 6,193 animals were slaughtered. It was found that 5,511 organs were condemned, mostly because of aspiration of blood (n = 1,231), larval migration in liver (n = 991), and renal cyst (n = 807). The survey revealed that R$ 11,955.66 is wasted annually in condemnation of organs. It is noteworthy that the main injury that contributed to the economic damage was larval migration in liver, which discard amount reached R$ 8,919.00. In order to reduce economic losses, it is necessary to do something against the critical points of condemnation, in which the main one observed in the study was the disposal of liver caused by larval migration.
ResumoO objetivo deste trabalho foi mensurar as perdas causadas pela condenação de vísceras bovinas em matadouros sob fiscalização do Serviço de Inspeção Municipal (SIM) em Santa Maria, RS, durante 12 meses consecutivos. O estudo foi realizado através do levantamento de dados de quatro matadouros do município de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, junto ao SIM. Os dados registrados foram o número de animais abatidos, número de órgãos condenados e principais lesões que levaram as condenações, no período de outubro de 2010 a setembro de 2011. Durante o período de avaliação, 9.261 animais foram abatidos. Observouse a condenação de 8.167 órgãos, com destaque para as lesões de fasciolose, enfisema pulmonar, aspiração de sangue e telangiectasia. A pesquisa revelou uma perda anual de R$58.261,63 devido às condenações das vísceras. O fígado representou a víscera com maior quantidade de descarte e a principal lesão que contribuiu para os prejuízos econômicos foi causada pela Fasciola hepatica, cujo valor totalizou R$36.361,63. Para minimizar as perdas econômicas é necessário fazer uso do relatório de abate como um instrumento de diagnóstico da saúde do rebanho para controlar o parasito na propriedade rural.Palavras-chave: Fasciola hepatica, subprodutos, lesões, vísceras, prejuízo financeiro. AbstractThe aim of this study was to investigate the economic losses caused by cattle viscera condemnation in municipal slaughterhouses inspected in Santa Maria, -RS, Brazil, during 12 months. For this experiment were obtained data from four slaughterhouses in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul. The collected data consisted of number of animals harvested, number of condemned viscera and major lesions that led to condemnation, from October 2010 to September 2011. During the evaluation period, 9,261 animals were slaughtered. It was found that 8,167 viscera were condemned. Most reported lesions were fascioliasis, telangiectasia lesions, pulmonary emphysema, and blood aspiration. The economic loss of the period due to viscera condemnation was R$ 58,261.63. Liver was the most condemned viscera in which Fasciola hepatica was the main reason resulting in a loss of R$ 36,361.63. In order to reduce economic losses, it is necessary control the parasite on farms, maintaining to use the slaughter report as a diagnostic tool to herd health.Keywords: economic losses, Fasciola hepatica, by-products, lesions, viscera. IntroduçãoNa cadeia produtiva de carne bovina, as vísceras são subprodutos importantes do ponto de vista econômico, pois agregam valor à produção ao representarem fontes proteicas alternativas para a população mundial em expansão. Sendo assim, provavelmente a produção de vísceras terá maior relevância no futuro (Chiba, 2005; Kale et al., 2011).Embora os cortes cárneos sejam as frações amplamente consumidas pela população, as vísceras também podem ser destinadas ao consumo humano in natura ou utilizadas como matéria-prima para fabricação de produtos processados (Toldrá et al., 2012). Além disso, deve-se destacar que estes subprodutos a...
The tannin extract of Quebracho Colorado wood (Schinopsis balansae and Schinopsis lorentzii) is rich in proanthocyanidins with demonstrated powerful scavenging activity against free radicals. Currently, this extract is used in the wine industry to improve sensory attributes, stabilize color, and act as a redox buffer. In this study, we hypothesized that condensed tannins from Quebracho Colorado wood could be incorporated into beef patties as a natural antioxidant source to improve shelf life. Patties formulated with tannin extract (0, 0.5%, 1%, and 1.5%) were evaluated for instrumental color, lipid oxidation, and sensory attributes. Patties were displayed under refrigerated aerobic conditions (PVC film) for 6 days for color and lipid oxidation analysis. For sensory analysis, patties were frozen immediately after formulation. Control (0%) samples were redder than samples formulated with 1.5% tannin during the first 4 days of display. For b*, samples formulated with 1.5% tannin were predominantly yellower during display. After day 4, chroma values were higher in samples formulated with 1.5% tannin. The inclusion of tannin extract improved lipid stability, however, levels above 0.5% decreased tenderness, softness, juiciness, and overall desirability of patties.
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