Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o potencial genético da população de milho UFV 7 para o melhoramento em Minas Gerais. Foram instalados três experimentos com a população de milho UFV 7, em três regiões de Minas Gerais
ABSTRACT. Cultivars of common bean with more erect plant architecture and greater tolerance to degree of lodging are required by producers. Thus, to evaluate the potential of hypocotyl diameter (HD) in family selection for plant architecture improvement of common bean, the HDs of 32 F 2 plants were measured in 3 distinct populations, and the characteristics related to plant architecture were analyzed in their progenies. Ninety-six F 2:3 families and 4 controls were evaluated in a randomized block design, with 3 replications, analyzing plant architecture grade, HD, and grain yield during the winter 2010 and drought 2011 seasons. We found that the correlation between the HD of F 2 plants and traits related to plant architecture of F 2:3 progenies were of low magnitude compared to the estimates for correlations considering the parents, indicating a high environmental influence on HD in bean plants. There was a predominance of additive genetic effects on the determination of hypocotyl diameter, which showed higher precision and accuracy compared to plant architecture grade. Thus, this characteristic can be used to select progenies in plant architecture improvement of common beans; however, selection must be based on the means of at least 39 plants in the plot, according to the results of repeatability analysis.
Este trabalho teve como objetivo comparar a adaptabilidade e estabilidade de cultivares de café quanto à média de produtividade anual e de biênios, pelo método de EBERHART & RUSSEL (1996), e selecionar cultivares de café para o cultivo orgânico em Minas Gerais. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em três locais, em delineamento de blocos casualizados com trinta genótipos e três repetições. Uma análise se baseou na produtividade média anual de quatro colheitas (2005/2006, 2006/2007, 2007/2008 e 2008/2009) com o total de doze ambientes. A outra análise considerou a média de dois biênios (2005/2006 e 2006/2007; 2007/2008 e 2008/2009) com o total de seis ambientes. A análise em que se considerou a média da produtividade do biênio apresentou redução expressiva do coeficiente de variação ambiental. Por isso, foi possível identificar mais cultivares com adaptabilidade e estabilidade para o cultivo orgânico. Conclui-se que a análise de adaptabilidade e estabilidade com base na produtividade de biênio é mais segura para a seleção de cultivares. Considerando essa premissa, as cultivares 'Catucaí Vermelho 36/6', 'Catuaí Vermelho IAC 15' e 'Siriema 842' são indicadas somente para os ambientes favoráveis. As cultivares 'Sabiá 708', 'IBC Palma 1', 'Catucaí Amarelo 24/137', 'Oeiras MG 6851' e as linhagens H518 e H514 são indicadas para o cultivo orgânico em locais com ambientes similares aos avaliados em Minas Gerais.
Trait selection is occasionally necessary to save money and time, as well as accelerate breeding program processes. This study aimed to propose two criteria to select traits based on a Procrustes analysis that are poorly explored in genetic breeding: Criterion 1 (backward algorithm) and Criterion 2 (exhaustive algorithm). Then, these two criteria were further compared with Jolliffe’s criterion, which has often been used to select traits in genetic diversity studies. Sixteen agronomic traits were considered, and 40 Conilon coffee (Coffea canephora) accessions were evaluated. This study showed that the flexibility in selecting traits by researcher preference, graphical visualization, and Procrustes statistic through criteria 1 and 2 is a fast and reliable alternative for decision-making. These decisions are based on the removal and addition of traits for phenotyping in studies of Conilon coffee diversity that can be applied to other crops. Other relevant aspects of selection traits criteria were also discussed.
Abstract:This study aimed to identify promising arabica coffee genotypes for organic systems. The experiments were arranged in a randomized block design, with 30 genotypes and three replications. The adaptability and stability analysis was carried out using the modified centroid method, considering the mean yield of two biennia
The correct choice of parents that will compose optimal segregating populations is the key to success for breeding programs. It was postulated the hypothesis that this choice of these parents could be made based on information of molecular markers analyzed in the context of population structure. Ten parental populations were simulated and 45 hybrid combinations were obtained from the dialel crosses. Each population consisted of 200 individuals with 50 independent loci. The populations were evaluated for the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE), Coefficient of Inbreeding (F), Heterozygosity (H), and the Polymorphic Information Content (PIC). Genetic diversity between pairs of parental populations was evaluated using five dissimilarity measures. Values of Mantel correlation were obtained for the pairs of the dissimilarity matrices, and the PIC, H, and F values were obtained in the hybrid combinations. All parental populations were under HWE, and the combination that emerged from this condition was the hybrid 3x5, with only 26% of the loci manifesting HWE. This same hybrid was among those with lower F estimates and higher values of H, which indicated the existence of greater divergence between their parentals. There was agreement on the indication of the more and less divergent hybrid combinations for the dissimilarity measures. This fact is important because the variability, associated with the good average potential, are important criteria for the formation of an initial population in breeding programs of any kind, involving sexual processes.
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