Two new land planarian species, collected in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, are described. Their external aspect is similar to that of Imbira marcusi Carbayo et al., 2013 and Pseudogeoplana theresopolitana (Schirch, 1929), respectively. The analysis of the internal organs, however, revealed they belong to the genus Cratera. The male copulatory organs of one species is very different from any other geoplaninid, for the penis papilla holds a large, distal cavity receiving the ejaculatory duct and, furthermore, the papilla projects vertically downwards from the roof of the male atrium. Thus we consider it as a new species, Cratera cuarassu sp. nov. The second species differs from its congeners in that the dorsal insertion of the penis papilla is anterior to the ventral one, and in that the female atrium is narrowed in the anterior portion. The species was found in the type locality of Pseudogeoplana theresopolitana (Schirch, 1929) and compares well with it in the external features. However, since its internal organs are unknown and the type material of the species is seemingly lost, we describe it as Cratera anamariae Carbayo, sp. nov.
The Brazilian Atlantic Forest harbors the world's richest areas of land planarians (Platyhelminthes: Tricladida). Nevertheless, the number of undiscovered species from this biological unit remains seemingly high. Herein we describe Geoplana piriana Almeida & Carbayo, sp. nov. from the state of Rio de Janeiro, and Geoplana tingauna Kishimoto & Carbayo, sp. nov. from the state of Santa Catarina. Each species shows a dorsum with a unique color pattern among Geoplaninae species. Their internal morphology also differs: G. piriana sp. nov. shows a unique combination of features, including an extrabulbar, non-bifurcated prostatic vesicle, a non-folded male atrium, a horizontal, cylindrical penis papilla, a female atrium anteriorly narrowed, and lined with an epithelium with multilayered aspect. Geoplana tingauna sp. nov. possesses a prostatic vesicle constituted of a pair of branches opening into the very distal portion of a tubular, unpaired portion, a feature not seen in other Geoplaninae species
The monotypic genus of land planarians Timyma (Rhynchodeminae, Geoplanidae) has been suggested to be a relict that could reflect a pre‐Tertiary Antarctic connection between South America and Australia and New Zealand. Two species belonging to this genus, Timyma juliae E. M. Froehlich, 1978 and Timyma olmuensis Almeida & Carbayo sp. n., are (re)described herein. Both species present ventral testes and a semilunate headplate, the same as the members of the Oriental subfamily Bipaliinae. Timyma olmuensis Almeida & Carbayo sp. n. is studied by means of an integrative approach. Two nuclear gene fragments (28S, EF) and a mitochondrial gene fragment (COI) were sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses pointed out that Timyma is the sister–group of the Neotropical Geoplaninae and is phylogenetically distant from Bipaliinae, contradicting the hypothesis of Timyma as a South American relict of a Gondwanan taxon. These results indicate that the headplate evolved independently in Timyma and Bipaliinae. Morphological data reinforce this view. Accordingly, Timyminae subfam. n. is proposed for Timyma and a new diagnosis for the genus is proposed.
Three new Neotropical land planarians (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Geoplaninae) from the Brazilian Atlantic forest are described. Obama apiguara Oliveira, Almeida & Carbayo sp. nov. presents glandular fossae opening through dorsal epithelium, a structure not documented previously among land flatworms. Paraba tata Bolonhezi, Lago-Barcia & Carbayo sp. nov., is characterized by a prostatic vesicle horizontal with an inconspicuous bifurcate portion, a penis papilla as long as male atrium and a female genital duct projected from the postero-dorsal section of the female atrium. The third new species is distinctive in the extraordinarily thick muscle surrounding the prostatic vesicle, a finger-shaped penis papilla, and a dilated female genital cavity. These attributes stands the species apart from all members of Geoplaninae and Piima ata Carbayo gen. et sp. nov. is proposed.
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