This study presents the adaptation of the Affective Norms for English Words (ANEW; Bradley & Lang, 1999a) for European Portuguese (EP). The EP adaptation of the ANEW was based on the affective ratings made by 958 college students who were EP native speakers. Subjects assessed about 60 words by considering the affective dimensions of valence, arousal, and dominance, using the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) in either a paper-and-pencil or a Web survey procedure. Results of the adaptation of the ANEW for EP are presented. Furthermore, the differences between EP, American (Bradley & Lang, 1999a), and Spanish (Redondo, Fraga, Padrón, & Comesaña, Behavior Research Methods, 39, 600-605, 2007) standardizations were explored. Results showed that the ANEW words were understood in a similar way by EP, American, and Spanish subjects, although some sex and cross-cultural differences were observed. The EP adaptation of the ANEW is shown to be a valid and useful tool that will allow researchers to control and/or manipulate the affective properties of stimuli, as well as to develop cross-linguistic studies. The normative values of EP adaptation of the ANEW can be downloaded at http://brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.
The positive interaction of materials with tissues is an important step in regenerative medicine strategies. Hydrogels that are obtained from polysaccharides and proteins are expected to mimic the natural cartilage environment and thus provide an optimum milleu for tissue growth and regeneration. In this work, novel hydrogels composed of blends of chitosan and Bombyx mori silk fibroin were cross-linked with genipin (G) and were freeze dried to obtain chitosan/silk (CSG) sponges. CSG sponges possess stable and ordered structures because of protein conformational changes from alpha-helix/random-coil to beta-sheet structure, distinct surface morphologies, and pH/swelling dependence at pH 3, 7.4, and 9. We investigated the cytotoxicity of CSG sponge extracts by using L929 fibroblast-like cells. Furthermore, we cultured ATDC5 cells onto the sponges to evaluate the CSG sponges' potential in cartilage repair strategies. These novel sponges promoted adhesion, proliferation, and matrix production of chondrocyte-like cells. Sponges' intrinsic properties and biological results suggest that CSG sponges may be potential candidates for cartilage tissue engineering (TE) strategies.
Hydrocolloids from seaweeds have interesting functional properties, such as antioxidant activity and gelling ability. A polysaccharide was isolated by aqueous extraction at 90 C from the red seaweed Gracilaria birdiae (Gb), with a yield of 27.2% of the seaweed dry weight. The sulfate content of the polysaccharide was 8.4% and the main sugars present were galactose (65.4 mol%), 3,6-anhydrogalactose (25.1 mol%) and 6-O-methylgalactose (9.2 mol%). Gel permeation chromatography showed that Gb polysaccharide is a heterogeneous system, with molar mass at the main peak of 3.7 Â 10 5 g mol À1 and a shoulder of 2.6 Â 10 6 g mol À1. The sulfated polysaccharide of Gb characterized by FTIR exhibits the characteristic bands of agarocolloids (at 1375 and 770 cm À1). The rheological behavior of Gb sulfated polysaccharide exhibits a gel-like behavior close to the one observed in commercial agar. The antioxidant properties of Gb sulfated polysaccharide were evaluated by measuring DPPH freeradical scavenging effect, showing that this polysaccharide has a moderate effect in inhibiting the formation of those radicals.
The development of mixed systems, formed by locust bean gum (LBG), and k-carrageenan (k-car) can offer new interesting applications such as the development of edible films with particular properties. kcar/LBG blend films with different ratios were developed, and their effects on films' physical properties were assessed. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy techniques were used to highlight the interactions between the two polysaccharides. The addition of k-car to LBG improved the barrier properties of the films leading to a decrease of water vapor permeability (WVP). Improved values of elongation-at-break (EB) were registered when the ratio of k-car/LBG was 80/20 or 40/60 (% w/w). Moreover, the k-car/LBG blend films enhance the tensile strength (TS) compared to k-car and LBG films. FTIR results suggested that hydrogen bonds interactions between k-car and LBG have a great influence in films' properties e.g. moisture content, WVP. Therefore, different k-car/LBG ratios can be used to tailor edible films with enhanced barrier and mechanical properties.
This work presents a methodology for the extraction of galactomannans from seeds of four different species of Leguminosae (Adenanthera pavonina, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Gleditsia triacanthos and Sophora japonica) to be used e.g. in the food and biomedical industries. The galactomannans were obtained by aqueous extraction followed by a precipitation with ethanol. This methodology is simpler and easier to perform than other existing extraction and purification methodologies, and because it avoids the use of organic solvents (other than ethanol), it is able to generate food grade substances and is environmentally friendlier. The yield of extraction in different stages of the process, monosaccharide composition, as well as physical and chemical parameters of the isolated galactomannans were determined and compared with previously published results. The mannose/galactose ratio of the extracted galactomannans ranged from 1.35 (A. pavonina) to 5.75 (S. japonica). The intrinsic viscosity ranged from 11.34 dL/g (C. pulcherrima) to 8.74 dL/g (S. japonica), while the viscosity average molecular mass ranged between 1.81 Â 10 6 Da and 1.17 Â 10 6 Da (A. pavonina > C. pulcherrima > G. triacanthos > S. japonica). The results confirm the suitability of the extraction and purification procedure to obtain galactomannans from non-traditional sources.
a b s t r a c tChitosan packaging films containing different bioactive compounds (a peptide fraction from whey protein concentrate (WPC) hydrolysate, glycomacropeptide (GMP) and lactoferrin) were produced and their mechanical and barrier properties were evaluated. The molecular weight of protein-based compounds was determined using SDS-PAGE. The addition of GMP and lactoferrin to chitosan film caused a significant reduction of tensile strength and the elongation-at-break significantly increased with the incorporation of lactoferrin. The addition of protein-based compounds also affected gas permeability: a significant decrease in water vapor permeability was observed with the incorporation of lactoferrin; oxygen permeability significantly decreased with the addition of GMP and lactoferrin and carbon dioxide permeability significantly decreased with the incorporation of all of the protein-based compounds. Such results were related with film's hydrophilicity and crystallinity.This manuscript contributes to the establishment of an approach to optimize edible films performance based on physico-chemical properties, aiming at a higher benefit for the consumer.
In this work, it is demonstrated that consumer acceptance analysis can be evaluated by simultaneously considering several attributes using a three-way internal preference map obtained by parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). Considerations regarding the building of this three-way map by PARAFAC are reported. Pilot case studies with real data sets from herb cakes and beef burgers are also carried out, and comparisons with results from regular internal preference maps are obtained by principal component analysis. Three-way internal preference maps enable the simultaneous analysis of interactions among consumer preferences, products and different evaluated attributes, which facilitate the selection of favorite samples. This method highlights the efficiency of the three-way analysis of consumer acceptance data with different sources of data variability, allowing the extraction of relevant information and the graphic display of this information with improved interpretability. Three-way internal preference mapping is a useful tool for the analysis of consumer acceptance tests, which can provide a more evidence-based and general interpretation of data. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONSThree-way internal preference mapping is another useful tool for the analysis of consumer acceptance tests, allowing the extraction of more relevant information and the graphic display of this information with improved interpretability. This tool makes it possible to simultaneously analyze the interactions among consumer preferences, products and different evaluated attributes, which can facilitate the selection of favorite samples. Furthermore, it enables a comparison of the overall performance of the samples in consumer acceptance tests, simultaneously taking into account the influence of all analyzed attributes. This method is useful in new product development and product improvement studies in research institutions and industries.
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