Scholars have argued that informality is driven by the degree to which it is expensive or difficult to operate in the formal economy. In contrast, we argue that firms choose to be informal or formal partly driven by industry conditions. We examine informal firms that are not registered with a governmental authority. Based on a large data set of Brazilian businesses, we find that firm informality is positively associated with dynamism, yet negatively associated with munificence and concentration. Our findings suggest that informality is a decision driven by both cost of registering and risk reduction for entrepreneurs depending on industry conditions.
ObjetivoDescrever as alterações da capacidade funcional de idosos durante a internação hospitalar e o grau de associação dessas alterações na ocasião da alta hospitalar a variáveis sociodemográficas e clínicas. Métodos Foram estudados 94 pacientes internados em enfermaria geriátrico gerontológica de um hospital escola, com idades entre 65 e 94 anos. A primeira avaliação da capacidade funcional (número de atividades cotidianas comprometidas) dos idosos foi realizada em até 24 horas da entrada do paciente e a última, imediatamente após a alta. Os pacientes sofreram intervenções terapêuticas rotineiras por equipe interdisciplinar. Os dados foram analisados pelo teste qui-quadrado, tanto para a linha de base como em relação à análise dos resultados obtidos com a internação hospitalar (α≤0,05). Resultados Dos pacientes estudados, 25,6% obtiveram melhora na capacidade funcional, 34,0% não sofreram alterações funcionais, 19,1% pioraram funcionalmente e 21,3% faleceram durante o período. Houve correlação significante entre a piora funcional e a presença déficit cognitivo, delirium e baixa capacidade funcional na entrada no hospital. Conclusões A capacidade funcional é um importante marcador de saúde em idosos hospitalizados. A melhora funcional durante a internação está associada a menores dificuldades nas atividades diárias referidas no momento da entrada no hospital e melhores condições clínicas.
Background Expiratory flow limitation and lung hyperinflation promote cardiocirculatory perturbations that might impair O 2 delivery to locomotor muscles in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The hypothesis that decreases in lung hyperinflation after the inhalation of bronchodilators would improve skeletal muscle oxygenation during exercise was tested. Methods Twelve non-or mildly hypoxaemic males (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 )¼38.5612.9% predicted; PaO 2 >60 mm Hg) underwent constant work rate cycle ergometer exercise tests (70e80% peak) to the limit of tolerance (Tlim)
We develop a new perspective on capital structure differences between for-profit social and commercial enterprises by combining imprinting and social entrepreneurship theory. Using a longitudinal matched sample, we find that for-profit social enterprises have 40% to 13% lower leverage and up to four times greater leverage stability over time than commercial enterprises. Our results suggest that these differences in capital structure derive from the process of prosocial organizing, which goes beyond the primary focus on financial preferences. Thus, for-profit social enterprises-and similar hybrid organizations, such as B corporations-may require theories adjusted to their context.
This research evaluated the fungistatic and fungicidal activities of red propolis alcoholic extract (RPAE) against different Candida species isolated from chronic periodontitis cases, and compared with chlorhexidine (CHX). Nineteen samples of Candida species (C. albicans [n = 12], C. tropicalis [n = 5] and C. glabrata [n = 2]) isolated from chronic periodontitis cases were analyzed. The fungistatic and fungicidal activity of both RPAE and CHX were evaluated using fluconazole and C. parapsilosis (ATCC 6258) as a control. Fungistatic activity was analyzed based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) reference procedure to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations. Fungicidal activity was established according to the absence of fungal growth on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar medium. The fungistatic and fungicidal activities of RPAE were observed, respectively, at 32-64 μg/mL and 64-512 μg/mL for C. albicans, 64 μg/mL and 64-256 μg/mL for C. glabrata, and 32-64 μg/mL and 64 µg/mL for C. tropicalis. CHX fungistatic activity was observed at concentrations of 0.003-1.92 µg/mL for C. albicans, 1.92 µg/mL for C. glabrata, and 0.03-1.92 µg/mL for C. tropicalis. Fluconazole fungistatic activity ranged between 1-64 μg/mL, and fungicidal activity occurred at 8-64 μg/mL, for the three Candida species analyzed. All the Candida species were susceptible to RPAE antifungal activity, but five samples of C. albicans, one of C. tropicalis and one of C. glabrata were resistant to fluconazole antifungal activity. CHX showed fungistatic activity against all the Candida species analyzed. The antifungal potential of these substances suggests that they can be applied as an alternative treatment for diseases affected by these species.
This study aimed to investigate the nutritional quality and bioactive potential of partially defatted baru (Dipteryx alataVog.) almond flour (BAF). The flour's proximate and mineral compositions, total phenolic, tocopherols and carotenoids contents, antioxidant capacity, trypsin inhibitor and amino acid analyses were performed. An experiment was conducted with 24 male Wistar rats in order to evaluate the flour's protein quality. BAF has high protein, fiber and mineral contents (iron, zinc, magnesium and copper), and it is a source of calcium. BAF presented relevant amounts of total phenolics (625 mg/100g) and good antioxidant capacity (130 µmol/Trolox eq). Autoclaved BAF showed essential amino acids profile, digestibility and protein quality better than in natura BAF. Autoclaved BAF might be used for human consumption as a source of quality protein and bioactive compounds, in healthy diets and processed foods.Keywords: baru seed; protein; chemical composition; amino acids; antioxidants.Practical Application: Defatted baru almond flour is a bioactive compound-rich raw material for healthy and innovative foods.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.