From the perspective of parents, the use of cochlear implants improves the quality of life of their children; the shorter the time of cochlear implants use, the higher the improvement in quality of life; and the more developed the auditory skills, the lower the percentage of quality of life improvement with the cochlear implants.
The aim of this study was to analyze the findings on Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials in children with cochlear implant through a systematic literature review. After formulation of research question and search of studies in four data bases with the following descriptors: electrophysiology (eletrofisiologia), cochlear implantation (implante coclear), child (criança), neuronal plasticity (plasticidade neuronal) and audiology (audiologia), were selected articles (original and complete) published between 2002 and 2013 in Brazilian Portuguese or English. A total of 208 studies were found; however, only 13 contemplated the established criteria and were further analyzed; was made data extraction for analysis of methodology and content of the studies. The results described suggest rapid changes in P1 component of Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials in children with cochlear implants. Although there are few studies on the theme, cochlear implant has been shown to produce effective changes in central auditory path ways especially in children implanted before 3 years and 6 months of age.
The electrical stimulation generated by the Cochlear Implant (CI) may improve the neural synchrony and hence contribute to the development of auditory skills in patients with Auditory Neuropathy / Auditory Dyssynchrony (AN/AD). Aim Prospective cohort cross-sectional study to evaluate the auditory performance and the characteristics of the electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) in 18 children with AN/AD and cochlear implants. Material and methods The auditory perception was evaluated by sound field thresholds and speech perception tests. To evaluate ECAP's characteristics, the threshold and amplitude of neural response were evaluated at 80Hz and 35Hz. Results No significant statistical difference was found concerning the development of auditory skills. The ECAP's characteristics differences at 80 and 35Hz stimulation rate were also not statistically significant. Conclusion The CI was seen as an efficient resource to develop auditory skills in 94% of the AN/ AD patients studied. The auditory perception benefits and the possibility to measure ECAP showed that the electrical stimulation could compensate for the neural dyssynchrony caused by the AN/AD. However, a unique clinical procedure cannot be proposed at this point. Therefore, a careful and complete evaluation of each AN/AD patient before recommending a Cochlear Implant is advised. Clinical Trials : NCT01023932
Summary Introduction:?The earlier the diagnosis and the intervention from the hearing impairment less will be the impact for the development of cognitive abilities, hearing and of speech from the child. Objective:?Characterize the age in the diagnosis and the beginning of intervention of the hearing loss and the accompaniment of the assisted children in a public Brazillian hearing health service ? Espa?o Reouvir from the Clinicas Hospital from the Medical School from the University of S?o Paulo. Method:?Retrospective study with information from 166 medical records from children regarding the: gender; etiology, type, degree and laterality of the hearing impairment; age in the diagnosis and adaptation of the Hearing aids (HA) and accompaniment in the service. Results:?The sample was composed by 56% men and 44% women. The prevailing etiology was from multifactorial origin. The hearing loss from the neurosensory type occurred in 88,6% of the cases. The degree of moderate hearing loss was the most frequent (30,7%), symmetry in both ears was found in 69,9% of the cases and unilateral hearing loss in 2,4%. The average age in the diagnosis was of 5,46 years and in the intervention was of 6,86 years. A total of 96,98% of children had already completed the process of adaptation and 78,32% still remained in the accompaniment. Conclusion:?The program Reouvir-HCFMUSP still receives children, both for diagnosis and or intervention in a late manner. However, still is possible the realization of the accompaniment of a significant number of users of the hearing aids, enabling a process of adaptation more effective.
Central auditory pathway maturation in children depends on auditory sensory stimulation. The objective of the present study was to monitor the cortical maturation of children with cochlear implants using electrophysiological and auditory skills measurements. The study was longitudinal and consisted of 30 subjects, 15 (8 girls and 7 boys) of whom had a cochlear implant, with a mean age at activation time of 36.4 months (minimum, 17 months; maximum, 66 months), and 15 of whom were normal-hearing children who were matched based on gender and chronological age. The auditory and speech skills of the children with cochlear implants were evaluated using GASP, IT-MAIS and MUSS measures. Both groups underwent electrophysiological evaluation using long-latency auditory evoked potentials. Each child was evaluated at three and nine months after cochlear implant activation, with the same time interval adopted for the hearing children. The results showed improvements in auditory and speech skills as measured by IT-MAIS and MUSS. Similarly, the long-latency auditory evoked potential evaluation revealed a decrease in P1 component latency; however, the latency remained significantly longer than that of the hearing children, even after nine months of cochlear implant use. It was observed that a shorter P1 latency corresponded to more evident development of auditory skills. Regarding auditory behavior, it was observed that children who could master the auditory skill of discrimination showed better results in other evaluations, both behavioral and electrophysiological, than those who had mastered only the speech-detection skill. Therefore, cochlear implant auditory stimulation facilitated auditory pathway maturation, which decreased the latency of the P1 component and advanced the development of auditory and speech skills. The analysis of the long-latency auditory evoked potentials revealed that the P1 component was an important biomarker of auditory development during the rehabilitation process.
RESUMO Objetivo Analisar como os Potenciais Evocados Auditivos de Longa Latência (PEALL) variam de acordo com a idade na população infantil, por meio de revisão sistemática da literatura. Estratégia de pesquisa Depois da formulação da pergunta da pesquisa, o levantamento bibliográfico foi realizado em cinco bases de dados, com os seguintes descritores: Eletrofisiologia (Electrophysiology), Potenciais Evocados Auditivos (Auditory Evoked Potentials), Criança (Child), Plasticidade Neuronal (Neuronal Plasticity) e Audiologia (Audiology). Critérios de seleção Artigos com nível de evidência 1, publicados na íntegra entre os anos de 1995 e 2015 na língua Portuguesa Brasileira ou Inglesa. Análise dos dados Foram analisados os aspectos relacionados ao surgimento, morfologia e latência dos componentes P1, N1, P2 e N2. Resultados Foram localizados 388 estudos; contudo apenas 21 contemplaram os critérios de inclusão para análise. O componente P1 caracteriza-se como o de maior ocorrência em crianças pequenas, sendo observado por volta de 100-150 ms, o qual tende a diminuir com o decorrer da idade cronológica. O componente N2 mostrou-se como o segundo componente mais registrado em crianças, sendo observado por volta de 200-250 ms. Os demais componentes N1 e P2 mostram-se menos frequentes e passam a ser visualizados e registrados ao longo do processo maturacional. Conclusão A maturação dos PEALL acontece gradativamente, sendo o surgimento dos componentes P1, N1, P2 e N2 bem como seus valores de latência variáveis na infância. Os componentes P1 e N2 são os mais observados e descritos na população pediátrica. A diversidade de protocolos dificulta a comparação entre os estudos.
The bilateral cochlear implant provided better speech perception in silence and in noise situations when compared to the unilateral cochlear implant, regardless of the interval between surgeries, age at the surgical procedure and the time of use of the 2nd cochlear implant. Speech perception with the 1st cochlear implant was significantly better than with the 2nd cochlear implant, both in silence and in noise. The use of the hearing aid prior to the 2nd cochlear implant influenced speech perception performance with the 2nd cochlear implant, both in silence and in noise.
RESUMO Objetivo O objetivo deste estudo foi monitorar o surgimento e as mudanças nos componentes dos Potenciais Evocados Auditivos de Longa Latência (PEALL) em crianças com audição normal. Método Estudo longitudinal com crianças de ambos os gêneros, sendo: sete crianças com idade entre 10 e 35 meses, e oito crianças com idade entre 37 e 63 meses. A avaliação eletrofisiológica da audição consistiu na análise dos PEALL obtidos em campo sonoro com as caixas posicionadas a 90° azimute, por meio da sílaba /ba/ na intensidade de 70 dBnNA. Cada criança passou por uma avaliação inicial seguida por duas reavaliações após três e nove meses. Resultados Foi observado surgimento dos componentes dos PEALL ao longo dos nove meses de acompanhamento, sendo os componentes P1 e N2 os mais frequentes em crianças desta faixa etária. Não houve diferença estatística no que diz respeito à ocorrência dos componentes P1, N1, P2 e N2 entre as crianças mais novas ou mais velhas. No que tange aos valores de latência, as maiores diferenças ao longo dos nove meses foram observadas no componente P1 para as crianças mais novas e para o componente N2 para as crianças mais velhas. Somente o componente P1 apresentou diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos, sendo que foram observados maiores valores de latência entre as crianças mais novas. Conclusão A maturação dos PEALL ocorre gradualmente e o surgimento dos componentes do complexo parece estar mais relacionado à maturação do sistema nervoso auditivo central do que à idade cronológica.
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