Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) oil was obtained via subcritical n-propane fluid extraction (SubFE) under different temperatures and pressures with an average yield of 28% and its composition, purity and oxidative stability were compared to oils obtained via conventional solvent extraction methods (SEMs). When the oxidative stability was measured by differential scanning calorimetry, the oil was found to be up to 5 times more resistant to lipid oxidation as compared to the SEM oils. Direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analysis showed characteristic and similar TAG profiles for SubFE and SEMs oils but higher purity for the SubFE oil. The flaxseed oil content of β-tocopherol, campesterol, stigmasterol and sitosterol were quantified via GC-MS. SubFE showed to be a promising alternative to conventional SEM since SubFE provides an oil with higher purity and higher oxidation stability and with comparable levels of biologically active components.
A 2 3 factorial design with center point in triplicate was used to evaluate the application of different enzymes in extraction of sunflower oil, comparing its quality with the oil obtained by conventional methods (solvent and pressing) in relation to antioxidant capacity, phytosterol and tocopherol contents, and fatty acid composition. Three enzymes were used; Pectinex Ultra SPL, Celluclast 1.5 L and Alcalase 2.4 L; and three factors were evaluated: enzyme concentration, sample/water ratio and extraction time. Enzymatic aqueous extraction produced oil with better quality in relation to some of the evaluated parameters: highest antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (371 µmol Trolox g −1 of oil), total phytosterols (183 mg 100 g −1 of oil) and omega-3 fatty acid content, as well the lowest content of saturated fatty acids. The application of enzymes in sunflower oil extraction represents an environmentally friendly methodology, free of toxic solvent residues and providing a final product of high quality.
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