The decline of tissue regenerative potential is a hallmark of ageing and may be due to age-related changes in tissue-specific stem cells. A decline in skeletal muscle stem cell (satellite cell) activity due to a loss of Notch signalling results in impaired regeneration of aged muscle. The decline in hepatic progenitor cell proliferation owing to the formation of a complex involving cEBP-alpha and the chromatin remodelling factor brahma (Brm) inhibits the regenerative capacity of aged liver. To examine the influence of systemic factors on aged progenitor cells from these tissues, we established parabiotic pairings (that is, a shared circulatory system) between young and old mice (heterochronic parabioses), exposing old mice to factors present in young serum. Notably, heterochronic parabiosis restored the activation of Notch signalling as well as the proliferation and regenerative capacity of aged satellite cells. The exposure of satellite cells from old mice to young serum enhanced the expression of the Notch ligand (Delta), increased Notch activation, and enhanced proliferation in vitro. Furthermore, heterochronic parabiosis increased aged hepatocyte proliferation and restored the cEBP-alpha complex to levels seen in young animals. These results suggest that the age-related decline of progenitor cell activity can be modulated by systemic factors that change with age.
The Immunological Genome Project combines immunology and computational biology laboratories in an effort to establish a complete 'road map' of gene-expression and regulatory networks in all immune cells.
The lack of therapies for progressive multiple sclerosis highlights the need to understand the regenerative process of remyelination that can follow CNS demyelination. This involves an innate immune response consisting of microglia/macrophages, which can be polarized to distinct functional phenotypes: proinflammatory (M1) or anti-inflammatory/immunoregulatory (M2). Here we show that a switch from an M1-to M2-dominant response occurred within microglia and peripherally-derived macrophages as remyelination started. Oligodendrocyte differentiation was enhanced in vitro with M2 conditioned media, and impaired in vivo following intra-lesional M2 depletion. M2 densities were increased in lesions of aged mice in which remyelination was enhanced by parabiotic coupling to a younger animal, and in MS lesions that normally show remyelination. Blocking M2-derived activin-A inhibited oligodendrocyte differentiation during remyelination in cerebellar slice cultures. Our results therefore show that M2 polarization is essential for efficient remyelination and identify activin-A as a novel therapeutic target for CNS regeneration.Remyelination, the formation of myelin sheaths around demyelinated axons by newly differentiated oligodendrocytes, can occur efficiently following central nervous system (CNS) demyelination. A major component of this regenerative process is a robust innate immune response consisting of peripherally-derived macrophages and their CNS-resident counterparts, microglia. Although these microglia/macrophages are implicated in CNS autoimmune disease via secretion of toxic molecules 1 and antigen presentation to cytotoxic lymphocytes 2 , they also exhibit regenerative properties through the phagocytosis of myelin debris 3, 4 and secretion of growth/neurotrophic factors 5 . Regenerative properties of Corresponding author: Veronique E. Miron, MRC Centre for Regenerative Medicine, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh BioQuarter, 5 Little France Drive, Edinburgh, EH16 4UU, Tel: +44 (0) 131 651 9570, Fax: +44 (0) 131 651 9501, email@example.com. Author Contributions: V.M. conceived the project, designed and carried out experiments, performed data acquisition, quantification, and analysis, and wrote the manuscript; A.B. and A.W. assisted in in vivo studies, and A.W. assisted in data interpretation; J.-W.Z. contributed to analysis and quantification of parabiosis lesion tissue; A.B., A.W., T.Y., and P.v.W. performed lesioning experiments to provide lesion tissue and assisted in tissue selection; J.R., J.S., A.J.W, R.J.M.F. provided parabiosis lesion tissue; R.J.M.F. assisted in study design, data interpretation, and manuscript writing; C.ff.-C. supervised the project, assisted in study design, data interpretation, figure preparation, and writing of the manuscript. Europe PMC Funders GroupAuthor Manuscript Nat Neurosci. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2014 April 07. Published in final edited form as:Nat Neurosci. 2013 September ; 16(9): 1211-1218. doi:10.1038/nn.3469. Europe PMC Funders Author Manus...
SUMMARY Long recognized to be potent suppressors of immune responses, Foxp3+CD4+ regulatory T (Treg) cells are being rediscovered as regulators of nonimmunological processes. We describe a phenotypically and functionally distinct population of Treg cells that rapidly accumulated in the acutely injured skeletal muscle of mice, just as invading myeloidlineage cells switched from a proinflammatory to a proregenerative state. A Treg population of similar phenotype accumulated in muscles of genetically dystrophic mice. Punctual depletion of Treg cells during the repair process prolonged the proinflammatory infiltrate and impaired muscle repair, while treatments that increased or decreased Treg activities diminished or enhanced (respectively) muscle damage in a dystrophy model. Muscle Treg cells expressed the growth factor Amphiregulin, which acted directly on muscle satellite cells in vitro and improved muscle repair in vivo. Thus, Treg cells and their products may provide new therapeutic opportunities for wound repair and muscular dystrophies.
Loss of immune function and an increased incidence of myeloid leukemia are two of the most clinically significant consequences of aging of the hematopoietic system. To better understand the mechanisms underlying hematopoietic aging, we evaluated the cell intrinsic functional and molecular properties of highly purified long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs) from young and old mice. We found that LT-HSC aging was accompanied by cell autonomous changes, including increased stem cell self-renewal, differential capacity to generate committed myeloid and lymphoid progenitors, and diminished lymphoid potential. Expression profiling revealed that LT-HSC aging was accompanied by the systemic down-regulation of genes mediating lymphoid specification and function and up-regulation of genes involved in specifying myeloid fate and function. Moreover, LT-HSCs from old mice expressed elevated levels of many genes involved in leukemic transformation. These data support a model in which age-dependent alterations in gene expression at the stem cell level presage downstream developmental potential and thereby contribute to age-dependent immune decline, and perhaps also to the increased incidence of leukemia in the elderly.leukemia ͉ microarray ͉ ontogeny ͉ lineage potential
Under conditions of tissue injury, myocardial replication and regeneration have been reported. A growing number of investigators have implicated adult bone marrow (BM) in this process, suggesting that marrow serves as a reservoir for cardiac precursor cells. It remains unclear which BM cell(s) can contribute to myocardium, and whether they do so by transdifferentiation or cell fusion. Here, we studied the ability of c-kit-enriched BM cells, Lin- c-kit+ BM cells and c-kit+ Thy1.1(lo) Lin- Sca-1+ long-term reconstituting haematopoietic stem cells to regenerate myocardium in an infarct model. Cells were isolated from transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) and injected directly into ischaemic myocardium of wild-type mice. Abundant GFP+ cells were detected in the myocardium after 10 days, but by 30 days, few cells were detectable. These GFP+ cells did not express cardiac tissue-specific markers, but rather, most of them expressed the haematopoietic marker CD45 and myeloid marker Gr-1. We also studied the role of circulating cells in the repair of ischaemic myocardium using GFP+-GFP- parabiotic mice. Again, we found no evidence of myocardial regeneration from blood-borne partner-derived cells. Our data suggest that even in the microenvironment of the injured heart, c-kit-enriched BM cells, Lin- c-kit+ BM cells and c-kit+ Thy1.1(lo) Lin- Sca-1+ long-term reconstituting haematopoietic stem cells adopt only traditional haematopoietic fates.
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been derived from various somatic cell populations through ectopic expression of defined factors. It remains unclear whether iPSCs generated from different cell types are molecularly and functionally similar. Here we show that iPSCs obtained from mouse fibroblasts, hematopoietic and myogenic cells exhibit distinct transcriptional and epigenetic patterns. Moreover, we demonstrate that cellular origin influences the in vitro differentiation potentials of iPSCs into embryoid bodies and different hematopoietic cell types. Notably, continuous passaging of iPSCs largely attenuates these differences. Our results suggest that early-passage iPSCs retain a transient epigenetic memory of their somatic cells of origin, which manifests as differential gene expression and altered differentiation capacity. These observations may influence ongoing attempts to use iPSCs for disease modeling and could also be exploited in potential therapeutic applications to enhance differentiation into desired cell lineages.
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