Variations in the anatomy of the hymen are common and imperforate hymen is an extreme manifestation. In spite of the recommendations for early inspection of the external genitalia, hymenal malformations escape diagnosis until the time of menarche. Rarely, female infants with imperforate hymen present with urologic complications. We would like to present an unusual case of urinary retention in an 11-month-old female infant due to imperforate hymen. This infant was successfully treated surgically.
Xanthogranulomatous cystitis (XC) is a rare benign chronic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. We report a patient of XC managed with long-term antibiotics and augmentation cystoplasty. A 50-year-old man presented with urgency, frequency, hematuria and lower abdominal pain. Investigations revealed small capacity bladder with diverticula and cystoscopy showed inflamed bladder with multiple small polypoidal growth that had histological findings suggestive of XC on biopsy. Patient was treated with augmentation cystoplasty and prolonged administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Postoperative course was uneventful and patient remains asymptomatic at 1-year follow-up. XC is rare entity of unknown etiology. Patients may be given a trial of long-term broad-spectrum antibiotics.
A Boari flap may be required to bridge long defects of the middle and lower ureter to the bladder. Laparoscopic construction of a Boari flap was performed in a patient with a ureteral stricture secondary to iatrogenic injury. The salient steps performed were spatulation of the transected ureteral end, fashioning of a Boari flap from the bladder, end-to-side anastomosis of the ureter to the flap, placement of a stent with the aid of a suction cannula, and closure of the flap over the stent. A Boari flap can be accomplished laparoscopically with minimal morbidity.
ABO antigens play an important role in solid organ transplantation. Desensitization for ABO incompatibility offers patients awaiting transplant a larger donor pool. The aim of this study was to assess outcome of desensitization using the institutional preconditioning protocol in ABO‐incompatible solid organ transplants. A retrospective analysis of ABO‐incompatible solid organ transplants between October 2015 and June 2018, at a tertiary healthcare center was performed. The preconditioning regimen consisted of immunosuppression and therapeutic apheresis (TA). Pre‐ and post‐TA titers were performed, until a target titer of 8 or below was achieved, at which transplant was performed. Follow‐up data till 1 year was analyzed. A total of 50 ABO‐incompatible solid organ transplantations, including 14 liver transplants and 36 renal transplants were analyzed. The median baseline anti‐A and anti‐B titers were 192 and 256, respectively. A total of 150 therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) procedures were performed for renal transplant recipients; 19 TPE and eight immunoadsorption procedures (five preoperative and three intraoperative) were performed for liver transplant recipients. Five (10%) patients experienced minor adverse events. Biopsy revealed antibody‐mediated rejection was observed in three cases in the immediate posttransplant phase and in three (6.67%) cases over 1 year. There was one death due to transplant‐associated thrombotic microangiopathy. Graft survival for renal transplant was 100% and death‐censored graft survival for liver transplant was 100%. Despite difficulties, ABO‐incompatible transplants can be performed without antibody‐mediated rejection with the use of an appropriate protocol.
We have designed efficient quantum circuits for the three-qubit Toffoli (controlled-controlled NOT) and the Fredkin (controlled-SWAP) gate, optimized via genetic programming methods. The gates thus obtained were experimentally implemented on a three-qubit NMR quantum information processor, with a high fidelity. Toffoli and Fredkin gates in conjunction with the single-qubit Hadamard gates form a universal gate set for quantum computing, and are an essential component of several quantum algorithms. Genetic algorithms are stochastic search algorithms based on the logic of natural selection and biological genetics and have been widely used for quantum information processing applications. The numerically optimized rf pulse profiles of the three-qubit quantum gates achieve > 99% fidelity. The optimization was performed under the constraint that the experimentally implemented pulses are of short duration and can be implemented with high fidelity. Therefore the gate implementations do not suffer from the drawbacks of rf offset errors or debilitating effects of decoherence during gate action. We demonstrate the advantage of our pulse sequences by comparing our results with existing experimental schemes.
Successful renal transplantation across HLA barrier in sensitized individuals has been on the rise during the past decade, primarily due to improved desensitization regimes. The aim of this study was to share outcome of desensitization in renal transplant recipients with donor‐specific anti‐HLA antibodies (DSA). This was a retrospective analysis of all HLA immunized individuals who were prospective renal transplant recipients. All such patients underwent preconditioning as per the institutional desensitization protocol. Complement‐dependent cytoxicity‐based crossmatch (CDC‐XM), luminex‐based crossmatch (LM‐XM) and flowcytometry‐based crossmatch (FC‐XM) were done in all cases. If any of these tests turned out positive, single antigen bead assay (SAB) was performed. Desensitization for DSA was performed in 55 patients and all patients were followed‐up for 1 year to assess graft function and patient outcome. CDC‐XM being a less sensitive assay, could not detect incompatibility in 29 (52.73%) cases. After desensitization, even though SAB and LM‐XM results revealed an MFI within acceptable range, FC‐XM being an extremely sensitive assay, continued to give a positive result in eight (14.55%) cases. The mean ± SD number of pretransplant TPE were 3.44 ± 0.98 (2‐11). Out of 55, there were 10 patients who were lost to follow up. Patient and graft survival of 45 patients at 1 year was found to be 100%. Preconditioning for renal transplants in the form of immunosuppression with TPE is an extremely useful auxiliary for transplantation in HLA sensitized renal transplant recipients.
Background and aims Although desensitization is well established, concerns about graft outcome, patient survival and rejection still exist. The present study aims at comparing outcomes of renal transplant recipients across simultaneous ABO and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) incompatibility barriers to those with ABO or HLA incompatibility alone. Materials and methods This was a retrospective study conducted from October 2015 to December 2018. All patients with a clinical diagnosis of chronic kidney disease, who were prospective HLA incompatible (HLAi) and/or ABO incompatible (ABOi) renal transplant recipients were included. A total of 400 cases including 36 ABOi transplants, 154 HLAi transplants, 10 simultaneously ABO and HLA incompatible transplants, and 200 ABO (ABOc) and HLA (HLAc) compatible kidney transplants from living donors were included. Results There were significantly more number of blood transfusions, previous transplants and pregnancies in HLAi transplant recipients relative to the ABOi or the control group. Mean number of therapeutic plasma exchange procedures per patient and mean plasma volume processed per procedure were slightly higher in the ABOi + HLAi category. The incidence of graft dysfunction due to suspected antibody‐mediated rejection during first year was highest in the ABOi + HLAi group, followed by ABOc + HLAi and ABOi + HLAc, lowest in the ABOc + HLAc category. Mean time to first episode of graft dysfunction was significantly shorter with incompatible transplants. There were no kidney transplant recipient deaths in the study. Conclusion Patient outcome and graft outcomes observed with incompatible transplants were not worse than those observed with compatible transplants.
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