Gentamicin is an effective widely used antibiotic, but the risk of nephrotoxicity and oxidative damage limit its long-term use. Hence, the current study aims to elucidate such hazardous effects. To achieve the study aim male Wistar albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) were exposed to gentamicin to investigate the resultant blood chemical changes and renal histological alterations. In comparison with control rats, gentamicin produced outstanding tubular, glomerular and interstitial alterations that included degeneration, necrosis, cytolysis and cortical tubular desquamation together with mesangial hypercellularity, endothelial cell proliferation and blood capillary congestion. Compared with control animals significant blood chemical changes (P < 0.05) including free radicals, ALT, AST, ALP, serum creatinine and serum urea were recorded in gentamicin-injected animals. The findings revealed that exposure to gentamicin can induce significant histological alterations in the kidney as well as remarkable blood chemical changes that might indicate marked renal failure.
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 NPs) are widely used in many commercial products, nanomedicine, agriculture, personal care products, different industries and pharmaceutical preparations with potential risk in human health and the environment. The current work was conducted to investigate the renal damage that might be induced by the acute toxicity TiO 2 NPs. A total of 40 healthy male adult Wistar albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) were exposed to TiO 2 NPs (126, 252, 378 mg/kg bw) for 24 and 48 h. Fresh portions of the kidneys from each rat were processed for histological and histochemical alterations. In comparison with respective control rats, exposure to TiO 2 NPs has marked the following glomerular, tubular and interstitial alterations including the followings: glomerular congestion, Bowman's capsule swelling and dilatation, inflamed glomeruli, renal tubules cloudy swelling, karyorrhexis, karyolysis, infiltration of inflammatory cells, congestion, necrosis, hydropic degeneration, dilatation and congestion of blood vessels, hyaline droplets and hyaline casts precipitation, interstitial edema and fibrosis. From the findings of the current work one may conclude that TiO 2 NPs are capable of inducing kidney damage with more insulation in the cortex and the proximal convoluted tubules than the medulla and the distal ones respectively. In addition, it might be concluded that renal damage induced by these nanomaterials is dose and duration of exposure dependent. Further hematological, biochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultra-structural studies are recommended.
Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are invested in various sectors and are becoming more persistent in our ambient environment with potential risk on our health and the ecosystems. The current study aims to investigate the histological, histochemical and ultrastructural hepatic changes that might be induced by 10 nm silver nanomaterials. Male mice (BALB/C) were exposed for 35 injections of daily dose of 10 nm Ag NPs (2 mg/kg). Liver tissues were subjected to examination by light and electron microscopy for histological, histochemical and ultrastructural alterations. Exposure to Ag NPs induced Kupffer cells hyperplasia, sinusoidal dilatation, apoptosis, ground glass hepatocytes appearance, nuclear changes, inflammatory cells infiltration, hepatocytes degeneration and necrosis. In addition, 10 nm Ag NPs induced histochemical alterations mainly glycogen depletion with no hemosiderin precipitation. Moreover, these nanomaterials exhibited ultrastructure alterations including mitochondrial swelling and cristolysis, cytoplasmic vacuolation, apoptosis, multilammellar myelin figures formation and endoplasmic destruction and reduction. The findings revealed that Ag NPs can induce alterations in the hepatic tissues, the chemical components of the hepatocytes and in the ultrastructure of the liver. One may also conclude that small size Ag NPs, which are increasingly used in human products could cause various toxigenic responses to all hepatic tissue components.
Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are widely used in nanomedicine, pharmaceutical products, industry and other consumer products owing to their unique physiochemical properties with probable potential risk to human health and the ecosystems. The aim of this work was to investigate the in-life morphological effects, biochemical, histological and histochemical alterations that might be induced by variable sizes of Ag NPs in hepatic, renal and testicular tissues with the hypothesis that variable sizes of nano-Ag could induce variable effects in the vital organs. Five groups of adult healthy male mice (BALB/C) were exposed to 35 intraperitoneal injections of Ag NPs (1 mg/kg bw) using five different particle sizes (10, 20, 40, 60 and 100 nm). All mice were subjected to in-life morphometric, biochemical, histological and histochemical analysis. The findings demonstrated that Ag NPs could induce alterations in the average body weight gain, food consumption, water intake and organ indices. In addition, these NPs significantly altered hepatic and renal biomarkers. Moreover, Ag NPs produced ground glass hepatocyte cytoplasm, with mitotic activity, nuclear alterations, degeneration, glycogen depletion and inflammatory cells infiltration in the liver. The kidneys of treated mice exhibited proximal renal tubules degeneration, distal renal tubules regeneration, glomerular shrinkage, Bowman’s capsule thickening and interstitial inflammation. The testicular tissues demonstrated spermatocyte sloughing and spermatid giant cell formation. The findings together indicated that Ag NPs could interact with the anatomical structures of the liver, kidney and testis in ways that could induce injury. In addition, the results indicated that smaller Ag NPs posed a greater potential risk than the larger ones, which might be associated with their behaviour, dissolution rate, bioavailability and their probable variable toxicokinetics.
Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles are among the top five nanoparticles used in consumer products, paints, and pharmaceutical preparations. Given that exposure to such nanoparticles is mainly via the skin and inhalation, the present study was conducted in male Wistar albino rats (Rattus norvegicus). Our aim was to investigate the effect of TiO 2 nanoparticles on hepatic tissue in an attempt to understand their toxicity and the potential effect of their therapeutic and diagnostic use. To investigate the effects of TiO 2 nanoparticles on liver tissue, 30 healthy male Wistar albino rats were exposed to TiO 2 nanoparticles at doses of 63 mg, 126 mg, and 252 mg per animal for 24 and 48 hours. Serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activity was altered. Changes in hepatocytes can be summarized as hydropic degeneration, cloudy swelling, fatty degeneration, portal and lobular infiltration by chronic inflammatory cells, and congested dilated central veins. The histologic alterations observed might be an indication of hepatocyte injury due to the toxicity of TiO 2 nanoparticles, resulting in an inability to deal with accumulated residues from the metabolic and structural disturbances caused by these nanoparticles. The appearance of cytoplasmic degeneration and destruction of nuclei in hepatocytes suggests that TiO 2 nanoparticles interact with proteins and enzymes in hepatic tissue, interfering with antioxidant defense mechanisms and leading to generation of reactive oxygen species which, in turn, may induce stress in hepatocytes, promoting atrophy, apoptosis, and necrosis. More immunohistochemical and ultrastructural investigations are needed in relation to TiO 2 nanoparticles and their potential effects when used as therapeutic and diagnostic tools.
The present study focused on extracting green larvicides from extracts of the combination of Foeniculum vulgare and Matricaria chamomilla using different solvents of increasing polarity in a Soxhlet extractor and evaluating their ovicidal, larvicidal, and cytotoxic activities. The most promising among all tested extracts was hexane extract. The ovicidal activity of the hexane PH2 extract resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in egg hatchability from 95.00 ± 6.16% to 15 ± 9.04% at doses ranging from 62.5 to 500 µg/mL. The larval mortality with the hexane extract ranged from 13.33 ± 3.3% to 93.33 ± 3.3% at doses ranging from 31.25 to 250 µg/mL, respectively. The LC 50 and LC 90 values of the larvicidal activity of the hexane extract were estimated to be 148.3 and 242.17 µg/mL, respectively, after 24 h of exposure. Similarly, the LC 50 values after 48 and 72 h of exposure were 124.93 and 100.3 µg/mL, respectively, against the third instar of Cx. pipiens . PH2 treatment of larvae resulted in histopathological changes such as degenerated epithelial cells and destruction of microvilli on the epithelial cells. The PH2 extract achieved a dose-dependent decrease in the rate of cell survival. The IC 50 value of PH2-treated HUVECs was 192.07 µg/mL after 24 h of incubation. The cells showed changes in cellular and nuclear morphology. In conclusion, the hexane extract of PH2 could be used in mosquito management programs.
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