Results: Overall, 5857 men had a weight gain of 5 kg or greater during 10 years of follow-up. Breakfast consumption was inversely associated with the risk of 5-kg weight gain after adjustment for age [hazard ratio (HR) ϭ 0.77 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72 to 0.82)], and this association was independent of lifestyle and BMI at baseline [HR ϭ 0.87 (95% CI, 0.82 to 0.93)]. Fiber and nutrient intakes partially explained the association between breakfast consumption and weight gain. The inverse association between breakfast consumption and weight gain was more pronounced in men with a baseline BMI of 25 kg/m 2 or lower [multivariate HR ϭ 0.78 (95% CI, 0.70 to 0.87)] than in men who were overweight at baseline [HR ϭ 0.92 (95% CI, 0.85 to 1.00)]. Furthermore, we observed that an increasing number of eating occasions in addition to three standard meals was associated with a higher risk of 5-kg weight gain [HR ϭ 1.15 (95% CI, 1.06 to 1.25, for Ն2 vs. 0 additional eating occasions)]. Discussion: These findings suggest that the consumption of breakfast may modestly contribute to the prevention of weight gain as compared with skipping breakfast in middleaged and older men.
Only a few studies have investigated the metabolic consequences of social jetlag. Therefore, we examined the association of social jetlag with the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus in a population-based cohort. We used cross-sectional data from the New Hoorn Study cohort (n = 1585, 47% men, age 60.8 ± 6 years). Social jetlag was calculated as the difference in midpoint sleep (in hours) between weekdays and weekend days. Poisson and linear regression models were used to study the associations, and age was regarded as a possible effect modifier. We adjusted for sex, employment status, education, smoking, physical activity, sleep duration, and body mass index. In the total population, we only observed an association between social jetlag and the metabolic syndrome, with prevalence ratios adjusted for sex, employment status, and educational levels of 1.64 (95% CI 1.1-2.4), for participants with >2 h social jetlag, compared with participants with <1 h social jetlag. However, we observed an interaction effect of median age (<61 years). In older participants (≥61 years), no significant associations were observed between social jetlag status, the metabolic syndrome, and diabetes or prediabetes. In the younger group (<61 years), the adjusted prevalence ratios were 1.29 (95% CI 0.9-1.9) and 2.13 (95% CI 1.3-3.4) for the metabolic syndrome and 1.39 (95% CI 1.1-1.9) and 1.75 (95% CI 1.2-2.5) for diabetes/prediabetes, for participants with 1-2 h and >2 h social jetlag, compared with participants with <1 h social jetlag. In conclusion, in our population-based cohort, social jetlag was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes/prediabetes, especially in younger (<61 years) participants.
Background: Dairy consumption has been postulated to reduce the risk of obesity and metabolic disturbances. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations of dairy consumption with body weight and other components of the metabolic syndrome. Design: We used cross-sectional data for 2064 men and women aged 50 -75 y who participated in the Hoorn Study. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel. Dairy consumption was assessed by using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Results: The median consumption of total dairy products was 4.1 servings/d. After adjustment for potential confounders (ie, dietary factors, physical activity, smoking, income, educational level, and antihypertensive medication), total dairy consumption was significantly associated with lower diastolic blood pressure (␤ Ȁ SE: Ҁ0.31 Ȁ 0.12 mm Hg/serving) and higher fasting glucose concentrations (0.04 Ȁ 0.02 mmol/L per serving), but not with body weight or other metabolic variables (ie, lipids, postload glucose, or insulin). When different dairy products were distinguished, borderline significant (P 0.10) inverse associations were observed for dairy desserts, milk, and yogurt with systolic (Ҁ1.26 Ȁ 0.58, Ҁ0.57 Ȁ 0.34, and Ҁ1.28 Ȁ 0.74 mm Hg/serving, respectively) and diastolic (Ҁ0.58 Ȁ 0.31, Ҁ0.57 Ȁ 0.18, and Ҁ0.35 Ȁ 0.40 mm Hg/serving, respectively) blood pressure, whereas cheese consumption was positively associated with body mass index (0.15 Ȁ 0.08/serving). Conclusion:In an elderly Dutch population, higher dairy consumption was not associated with lower weight or more favorable levels of components of the metabolic syndrome, except for a modest association with lower blood pressure.Am J Clin Nutr 2007;85: 989 -95.
Metformin is the first-line antidiabetic drug with over 100 million users worldwide, yet its mechanism of action remains unclear1. Here the Metformin Genetics (MetGen) Consortium reports a three-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS), consisting of 13,123 participants of different ancestries. The C allele of rs8192675 in the intron of SLC2A2, which encodes the facilitated glucose transporter GLUT2, was associated with a 0.17% (p=6.6×10−14) greater metformin-induced in haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in 10,577 participants of European ancestry. rs8192675 is the top cis expression quantitative trait locus (cis-eQTL) for SLC2A2 in 1,226 human liver samples, suggesting a key role for hepatic GLUT2 in regulation of metformin action. Among obese individuals, C-allele homozygotes at rs8192675 had a 0.33% (3.6 mmol/mol) greater absolute HbA1c reduction than T-allele homozygotes. This was about half the effect seen with the addition of a DPP-4 inhibitor, and equated to a dose difference of 550mg of metformin, suggesting rs8192675 as a potential biomarker for stratified medicine.
Aims The aim of this study was to develop, validate, and illustrate an updated prediction model (SCORE2) to estimate 10-year fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in individuals without previous CVD or diabetes aged 40–69 years in Europe. Methods and results We derived risk prediction models using individual-participant data from 45 cohorts in 13 countries (677 684 individuals, 30 121 CVD events). We used sex-specific and competing risk-adjusted models, including age, smoking status, systolic blood pressure, and total- and HDL-cholesterol. We defined four risk regions in Europe according to country-specific CVD mortality, recalibrating models to each region using expected incidences and risk factor distributions. Region-specific incidence was estimated using CVD mortality and incidence data on 10 776 466 individuals. For external validation, we analysed data from 25 additional cohorts in 15 European countries (1 133 181 individuals, 43 492 CVD events). After applying the derived risk prediction models to external validation cohorts, C-indices ranged from 0.67 (0.65–0.68) to 0.81 (0.76–0.86). Predicted CVD risk varied several-fold across European regions. For example, the estimated 10-year CVD risk for a 50-year-old smoker, with a systolic blood pressure of 140 mmHg, total cholesterol of 5.5 mmol/L, and HDL-cholesterol of 1.3 mmol/L, ranged from 5.9% for men in low-risk countries to 14.0% for men in very high-risk countries, and from 4.2% for women in low-risk countries to 13.7% for women in very high-risk countries. Conclusion SCORE2—a new algorithm derived, calibrated, and validated to predict 10-year risk of first-onset CVD in European populations—enhances the identification of individuals at higher risk of developing CVD across Europe.
PurposeTo increase the efficiency of retinal image grading, algorithms for automated grading have been developed, such as the IDx‐DR 2.0 device. We aimed to determine the ability of this device, incorporated in clinical work flow, to detect retinopathy in persons with type 2 diabetes.MethodsRetinal images of persons treated by the Hoorn Diabetes Care System (DCS) were graded by the IDx‐DR device and independently by three retinal specialists using the International Clinical Diabetic Retinopathy severity scale (ICDR) and EURODIAB criteria. Agreement between specialists was calculated. Results of the IDx‐DR device and experts were compared using sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV), distinguishing between referable diabetic retinopathy (RDR) and vision‐threatening retinopathy (VTDR). Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was calculated.ResultsOf the included 1415 persons, 898 (63.5%) had images of sufficient quality according to the experts and the IDx‐DR device. Referable diabetic retinopathy (RDR) was diagnosed in 22 persons (2.4%) using EURODIAB and 73 persons (8.1%) using ICDR classification. Specific intergrader agreement ranged from 40% to 61%. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of IDx‐DR to detect RDR were 91% (95% CI: 0.69–0.98), 84% (95% CI: 0.81–0.86), 12% (95% CI: 0.08–0.18) and 100% (95% CI: 0.99–1.00; EURODIAB) and 68% (95% CI: 0.56–0.79), 86% (95% CI: 0.84–0.88), 30% (95% CI: 0.24–0.38) and 97% (95% CI: 0.95–0.98; ICDR). The AUC was 0.94 (95% CI: 0.88–1.00; EURODIAB) and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.83–0.92; ICDR). For detection of VTDR, sensitivity was lower and specificity was higher compared to RDR. AUC's were comparable.ConclusionAutomated grading using the IDx‐DR device for RDR detection is a valid method and can be used in primary care, decreasing the demand on ophthalmologists.
PurposePeople with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have a doubled morbidity and mortality risk compared with persons with normal glucose tolerance. Despite treatment, clinical targets for cardiovascular risk factors are not achieved. The Hoorn Diabetes Care System cohort (DCS) is a prospective cohort representing a comprehensive dataset on the natural course of T2D, with repeated clinical measures and outcomes. In this paper, we describe the design of the DCS cohort.ParticipantsThe DCS consists of persons with T2D in primary care from the West-Friesland region of the Netherlands. Enrolment in the cohort started in 1998 and this prospective dynamic cohort currently holds 12 673 persons with T2D.Findings to dateClinical measures are collected annually, with a high internal validity due to the centrally organised standardised examinations. Microvascular complications are assessed by measuring kidney function, and screening feet and eyes. Information on cardiovascular disease is obtained by 1) self-report, 2) electrocardiography and 3) electronic patient records. In subgroups of the cohort, biobanking and additional measurements were performed to obtain information on, for example, lifestyle, depression and genomics. Finally, the DCS cohort is linked to national cancer and all-cause mortality registers. A selection of published findings from the DCS includes identification of subgroups with distinct development of haemoglobin A1c, blood pressure and retinopathy, and their predictors; validation of a prediction model for personalised retinopathy screening; the assessment of the role of genetics in development and treatment of T2D, providing options for personalised medicine.Future plansWe will continue with the inclusion of persons with newly diagnosed T2D, follow-up of persons in the cohort and linkage to morbidity and mortality registries. Currently, we are involved in (inter)national projects on, among others, biomarkers and prediction models for T2D and complications and we are interested in collaborations with external researchers.Trial registrationISRCTN26257579
OBJECTIVETo test the validity of the Framingham, Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE), and UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) risk function in the prediction of risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in populations with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), intermediate hyperglycemia, and type 2 diabetes.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSCalibration and discrimination of the three prediction models were tested using prospective data for 1,482 Caucasian men and women, 50–75 years of age, who participated in the Hoorn Study. All analyses were stratified by glucose status.RESULTSDuring 10 years of follow-up, a total of 197 CHD events, of which 43 were fatal, were observed in this population, with the highest percentage of first CHD events in the diabetic group. The Framingham and UKPDS prediction models overestimated the risk of first CHD event in all glucose tolerance groups. Overall, the prediction models had a low to moderate discriminatory capacity. The SCORE risk function was the best predictor of fatal CHD events in the group with NGT (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.79 [95% CI 0.70–0.87]), whereas the UKPDS performed better in the intermediate hyperglycemia group (0.84 [0.74–0.94]) in the estimation of fatal CHD risk. After exclusion of known diabetic patients, all prediction models had a higher discriminatory ability in the group with diabetes.CONCLUSIONSThe use of the Framingham function for prediction of the first CHD event is likely to overestimate an individual's absolute CHD risk. In CHD prevention, application of the SCORE and UKPDS functions might be useful in the absence of a more valid tool.
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