Resumo O Cerrado é o segundo maior bioma brasileiro e apresenta grande diversidade de frutos que possuem alto valor nutricional, sabor e aroma característicos, compostos bioativos com propriedades antioxidantes e apelo saudável. O mercado consumidor visa a produtos com apelo natural e funcional, e, pelo fato de haver grandes perdas pós-colheita dos frutos do cerrado, cabe à indústria de alimentos aliar tais propriedades dos frutos à elaboração de novos produtos com valor agregado e maior tempo de vida de prateleira. O presente trabalho apresenta uma revisão com o objetivo de listar e caracterizar os frutos do cerrado (pequi, bocaiuva, mangaba, cagaita, baru, murici, mama-cadela, buriti, araticum e guabiroba), apresentando estudos com possíveis aplicações na indústria de alimentos.
BackgroundCaffeine is an active alkaloid that can cause damage to bones in formation during prenatal life into adulthood. This compound can pass across the placenta and into the mother’s milk, causing a reduction in bone formation, growth and mass. The objective of this study was to examine the osteogenic potential of osteoblasts extracted from neonatal rats born to mothers treated with caffeine throughout pregnancy.MethodsTwenty-four adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, consisting of one control group and three groups that were treated with 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg of caffeine by an oral-gastric probe throughout the duration of the experimental period (pregnancy). At birth, three puppies from each dam in each group were euthanized, and osteoblasts were extracted from the calvaria of these pups for in vitro testing.ResultsThe osteoblasts extracted from the pups of rats that received 50 mg/kg caffeine during pregnancy exhibited increased expression of osteocalcin, osteopontin, sialoprotein, runx-2, alkaline phosphatase and type I collagen transcripts, resulting in increased synthesis of mineralization nodules.ConclusionsNeonates from rats treated with 50 mg/kg caffeine during pregnancy contained osteoblasts with a higher osteogenic potential characterized by increased expression of osteocalcin, osteopontin, sialoprotein, runx-2, alkaline phosphatase and type I collagen and increased synthesis of mineralization nodules.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are present in specialized niches in perivascular regions of adult tissues and are able to differentiate into various cell types, such as those committed to repairing. Bone marrow derived MSC from eight young mice C57BL/ 6 gfp + were expanded in culture for repairing critical defects in calvarial bone produced in twenty-four young isogenic adult C57BL/6 mice. The animals were subjected to a cranial defect of 6.0mm diameter and divided into two equal experimental groups. Control group did not receive any treatment and the treated group received a MSC pellet containing 1.0 x 10 7 cells/mL into the defects. The group treated with MSC showed increased angiogenesis and amount of new bone deposited on the defect limits than that observed in the control group. The results demonstrated that transplantation of bone marrow-derived MSC of C57BL/6 gfp + mice to bone critical defects produced in mice calvarial contributes positively to the bone repair process. MSC presets ability to influence the correct functioning of osteoblasts, increases the amount of mobilized cells for the repairing process, speeds up growth, and increases deposition of bone matrix.
Caffeine is an alkaloid that is widely consumed due to its presence in drugs, coffee, tea, and chocolate. This compound passes to offspring through the placenta and milk; can cause teratogenic mutations; and reduces the formation, growth, and mass of bone. Because mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are responsible for generating the entire skeleton, we hypothesized that these cells are targets of caffeine. This study evaluated the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs derived from the offspring of rats treated with caffeine during pregnancy and lactation. Twenty-four adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, including one control group and three experimental groups treated with 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg of caffeine. At weaning, three 21-day-old pups from each dam in each group were euthanized for extraction of bone marrow cells for in vitro tests. Caffeine doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg significantly reduced the activity of alkaline phosphatase at 7, 14, and 21 days and the expression of collagen I at 21 days. However, the expression of gene transcripts for alkaline phosphatase, Runx-2, and bone sialoprotein, as well as the synthesis of mineralization nodules, decreased significantly in all groups treated with caffeine. The expression of osteocalcin was significantly reduced only in the group treated with 50 mg/kg caffeine. The caffeine that passes from the mother to the offspring during pregnancy and lactation reduces the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. We propose that this reduction in the osteogenic potential of MSCs may be involved in the pathogenesis of osteopenia resulting from caffeine consumption.
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