Antimicrobial resistance is now considered a major global challenge; compromising medical advancements and our ability to treat infectious disease. Increased antimicrobial resistance has resulted in increased morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases worldwide. The lack of discovery of novel compounds from natural products or new classes of antimicrobials, encouraged us to recycle discontinued antimicrobials that were previously removed from routine use due to their toxicity, e.g., colistin. Since the discovery of new classes of compounds is extremely expensive and has very little success, one strategy to overcome this issue could be the application of synthetic compounds that possess antimicrobial activities. Polymers with innate antimicrobial properties or that have the ability to be conjugated with other antimicrobial compounds create the possibility for replacement of antimicrobials either for the direct application as medicine or implanted on medical devices to control infection. Here, we provide the latest update on research related to antimicrobial polymers in the context of ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp.) pathogens. We summarise polymer subgroups: compounds containing natural peptides, halogens, phosphor and sulfo derivatives and phenol and benzoic derivatives, organometalic polymers, metal nanoparticles incorporated into polymeric carriers, dendrimers and polymer-based guanidine. We intend to enhance understanding in the field and promote further work on the development of polymer based antimicrobial compounds.
Infectious disease caused by pathogenic bacteria continues to be the primary challenge to humanity. Antimicrobial resistance and microbial biofilm formation in part, lead to treatment failures. The formation of biofilms by nosocomial pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) on medical devices and on the surfaces of infected sites bring additional hurdles to existing therapies. In this review, we discuss the challenges encountered by conventional treatment strategies in the clinic. We also provide updates on current on-going research related to the development of novel anti-biofilm technologies. We intend for this review to provide understanding to readers on the current problem in health-care settings and propose new ideas for new intervention strategies to reduce the burden related to microbial infections.
Staphylococcus aureus, sequence type (ST) 398, is an emerging pathogen and the leading cause of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections in Europe and North America. This strain is characterized by high promiscuity in terms of host-species and also lacks several traditional S. aureus virulence factors. This does not, however, explain the apparent ease with which it crosses species-barriers. Recently, TIR-domain containing proteins (Tcps) which inhibit the innate immune response were identified in some Gram-negative bacteria. Here we report the presence of two proteins, S. aureus TIR-like Protein 1 (SaTlp1) and S. aureus TIR-like Protein 2 (SaTlp2), expressed by ST398 which contain domain of unknown function 1863 (DUF1863), similar to the Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain. In contrast to the Tcps in Gram-negative bacteria, our data suggest that SaTlp1 and SaTlp2 increase activation of the transcription factor NF-κB as well as downstream pro-inflammatory cytokines and immune effectors. To assess the role of both proteins as potential virulence factors knock-out mutants were created. These showed a slightly enhanced survival rate in a murine infectious model compared to the wild-type strain at one dose. Our data suggest that both proteins may act as factors contributing to the enhanced ability of ST398 to cross species-barriers.
There is strong evidence that high yielding dairy cows are extremely susceptible to infectious diseases, and that this has severe economic consequences for the dairy industry and welfare implications. Here we present preliminary functional evidence showing that the innate immune response differs between cow breeds. The ability of macrophages (MØ) to kill pathogens depends in part on oxygen-dependent and independent mechanisms. The oxygen-dependent mechanisms rely on the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS, respectively). ROS production has been shown to activate the inflammasome complex in MØ leading to increased production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine Interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Conversely RNS inhibits inflammasome mediated IL-1β activation, indicating a division between inflammasome activation and RNS production. In the present study MØ from Brown Swiss (BS) cattle produce significantly more RNS and less IL-1β when compared to cells from Holstein Friesian (HF) cattle in response to bacterial or fungal stimuli. Furthermore, BS MØ killed ingested Salmonella typhimurium more efficiently, supporting anecdotal evidence of increased disease resistance of the breed. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) stimulated IL-1β secretion in cells from both breeds, but was more pronounced in HF MØ. Blocking RNS production by l-arginase completely abolished RNS production but increased IL-1β secretion in BS MØ. Collectively these preliminary data suggest that the dichotomy of inflammasome activation and RNS production exists in cattle and differs between these two breeds. As pattern recognition receptors and signaling pathways are involved in the assessed functional differences presented herein, our data potentially aid the identification of in vitro predictors of appropriate innate immune response. Finally, these predictors may assist in the discovery of candidate genes conferring increased disease resistance for future use in combination with known production traits.
Background: Bovine polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) constitutively express the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) TLR2 and TLR4 and have been shown to generate Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) upon exposure to Eimeria bovis. The present work investigated the role of TLR2 and TLR4 in the recognition and uptake of E. bovis sporozoites, IL-8 production and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. Methods: TLR expression was performed by flow cytometric analysis on PMN exposed to live carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE)-stained sporozoites. Supernatants of PMN exposed to different E. bovis sporozoite preparations and antigens in the absence or presence of TLR antibodies were assessed for IL-8 secretion. Cells were exposed to sporozoite preparations and assessed for the activation of transcription factor NF-κB using a luciferase reporter assay. Immunofluorescence analysis was done to investigate TLR2 and TLR4 surface expression and NET formation on bovine PMN exposed to vital sporozoites. Results: we observed significantly increased TLR2 and TLR4 expression with a mean increase in expression that was greater for TLR2 than TLR4. This upregulation neither inhibited nor promoted sporozoite phagocytosis by bovine PMN. Live sporozoites together with anti-TLR2 mAb resulted in a significant enhancement of IL-8 production. NF-κB activation was more strongly induced in TLR2-HEK cells than in TLR4/MD2-HEK cells exposed to heat-killed sporozoites and antigens. Immunofluorescence analysis showed TLR-positive signals on the surface of PMN and concomitant NET formation. Conclusions: This is the first report on E. bovis-induced concomitant TLR2 and TLR4 expression during bovine PMN-derived NETosis.
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