Although the MMSE is widely used in the U.K., this project identifies the GPCOG, MIS and Mini-Cog as clinically and psychometrically robust and more appropriate for routine use in primary care. A coherent review of evidence coupled with an indepth evaluation of screening instruments has the potential to enhance ability and commitment to early intervention in primary care and, as part of a wider educational strategy, improve the quality and consistency of dementia screening.
Background: Most models of successful ageing do not allow for the possibility of living ''successfully,'' despite some degree of cognitive or physical impairment. We reviewed the successful ageing and related quality of life literature to identify their potential predictors. We then tested our hypotheses that wellbeing in adversity would be predicted by mental health (anxiety and depression) and social factors rather than physical health and that it would be stable over time. Method: We interviewed 224 people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their family carers, recruited to be representative of those living with AD in the community. We re-interviewed 122 (73.1% of eligible) participants 18 months later. Our main outcome measure was the perception of the person with AD on their life as a whole. Results: Mean ''wellbeing in adversity'' scores did not change significantly over time (t = 0.23). Social relationships, subjective mental health, health perception, activities of daily living and baseline wellbeing in adversity were the significant correlates of wellbeing in adversity on univariate analysis. Only baseline wellbeing in adversity and mental health score were significant predictors in our regression analysis. In a well fitting structural equation model, less severe dementia and better health perception predicted fewer mental health problems and social relationships, but were not direct predictors of wellbeing in adversity at 18 months. Conclusion: Successful ageing was common among a cohort of people with dementia. The most important predictors of this were mental health and social relationships, which fully mediated the relationship we found between health perception and wellbeing 18 months later.Successful ageing may not only be about escaping illness but also of having a positive attitude towards one's life despite poor health.
The review discussed in this paper provides a unique synthesis of evidence and knowledge about carers. The authors adopted a scoping review methodology drawing on a wide range of material from many different sources published between 2000 and 2016. It offers key insights into what we know and how we know it; reinforces and expands evidence about carers' profile; shows knowledge is uneven, e.g. much is known about working carers, young carers and carers of people with dementia but far less is about older carers or caring for someone with multiple needs. A striking feature of much research is a focus on caring as a set of tasks, rather than a dimension of an, often dyadic, relationship. While there is substantive evidence about the negative impact of caring, the review suggests that links between caring and carer outcomes are neither linear nor inevitable and vary in depth and nature. A reliance on cross-sectional studies using standardised measures is a major weakness of existing research: this approach fails to capture the multidimensionality of the caring role, and the lived experience of the carer. Although research relating to formal support suggests that specific interventions for particular groups of carers may be effective, overall the evidence base is weak. There is a tension between cost-effectiveness and what is valued by carers. Developing robust evaluative models that accommodate this tension, and take account of the dyadic context of caring is a critical challenge. A fundamental deficit of carer-related research is its location in one of two, largely separate, paradigmatic frameworks: the "Gatherers and Evaluators" and the "Conceptualisers and Theorisers." The authors suggest that developing an integrated paradigm that draws on the strengths and methods of existing paradigms, has considerable potential to generate new knowledge and new evidence and extend understanding of care and caring.
This article provides a critical reflection on carer empowerment in the UK, an issue which has received limited attention in policy and research. The arena is characterised by considerable conceptual confusion around key terminology, carer, care and caring, and by limited understanding of the meaning and outcomes of carer empowerment. Despite increased national acknowledgment of carers, a politically active carers' movement and a number of policies intended to enhance the recognition and rights of carers, many carers remain invisible and receive little support from services, to the detriment of their own health and well-being. Addressing these challenges, alongside developing a robust theoretical foundation for taking the 'carers' agenda' forward, is needed if carers are to move towards a more empowered status in the twenty-first century.
it is difficult to perform conventional clinical trials of an intervention already embedded in practice, and all included studies had methodological limitations. However, this review concludes that serious direct injury from bedrails is usually related to use of outmoded designs and incorrect assembly rather than being inherent, and bedrails do not appear to increase the risk of falls or injury from falls.
Background There has been increasing recognition of the importance and extent of abuse of vulnerable adults, including people with intellectual disabilities, leading to the development of monitoring systems. This paper reports findings from one of the largest databases in the UK collected between 1998 and 2005. Method Analysis of the 1926 referrals relating to people with intellectual disabilities included description of the nature of abuse and the responses to the referrals, comparisons to those relating to other client groups and comparisons between those placed locally and those placed out‐of‐area. Results About one‐third of all adult protection referrals related to people with intellectual disability, remaining consistent over time. However, the number of referrals increased significantly. The majority of people lived in residential care or supported living and this was reflected in the nature of the referrals – people were more likely to have been abused in the care home and by staff or service users than those without an intellectual disability. The most common type of abuse was physical abuse. Sexual abuse was more prevalent in the intellectual disability sample than in other client groups. People with intellectual disability were more likely to have experienced follow‐up action, usually through more monitoring. There was a different pattern of abuse seen in those placed out‐of‐area. Conclusions The overall pattern of abuse is similar to that reported in earlier studies. There is some indication that residential situation and in particular being placed in a residential placement out‐of‐area, may be an important factor in predicting adult protection referrals.
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