Few virulence factors have been identified for Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis. In this study, we quantitatively evaluated the protein composition of P. brasiliensis in the yeast phase using minimal and rich media to obtain a better understanding of its virulence and to gain new insights into pathogen adaptation strategies. This analysis was performed on two isolates of the Pb18 strain showing distinct infection profiles in B10.A mice. Using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis, we identified and quantified 316 proteins in minimal medium, 29 of which were overexpressed in virulent Pb18. In rich medium, 29 out of 295 proteins were overexpressed in the virulent fungus. Three proteins were found to be up-regulated in both media, suggesting the potential roles of these proteins in virulence regulation in P. brasiliensis. Moreover, genes up-regulated in virulent Pb18 showed an increase in its expression after the recovery of virulence of attenuated Pb18. Proteins up-regulated in both isolates were grouped according to their functional categories. Virulent Pb18 undergoes metabolic reorganization and increased expression of proteins involved in fermentative respiration. This approach allowed us to identify potential virulence regulators and provided a foundation for achieving a molecular understanding of how Paracoccidioides modulates the host-pathogen interaction to its advantage.
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii, thermally dimorphic fungi, are the causative agents of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). Paracoccidioides infection occurs when conidia or mycelium fragments are inhaled by the host, which causes the Paracoccidioides cells to transition to the yeast form. The development of disease requires conidia inside the host alveoli to differentiate into yeast cells in a temperature-dependent manner. We describe the presence of a two-component signal transduction system in P. brasiliensis, which we investigated by expression analysis of a hypothetical protein gene (PADG_07579) that showed high similarity with the dimorphism-regulating histidine kinase (DRK1) gene of Blastomyces dermatitidis and Histoplasma capsulatum This gene was sensitive to environmental redox changes, which was demonstrated by a dose-dependent decrease in transcript levels after peroxide stimulation and a subtler decrease in transcript levels after NO stimulation. Furthermore, the higher PbDRK1 levels after treatment with increasing NaCl concentrations suggest that this histidine kinase can play a role as osmosensing. In the mycelium-yeast (M→Y) transition, PbDRK1 mRNA expression increased 14-fold after 24 h incubation at 37°C, consistent with similar observations in other virulent fungi. These results demonstrate that the PbDRK1 gene is differentially expressed during the dimorphic M→Y transition. Finally, when P. brasiliensis mycelium cells were exposed to a histidine kinase inhibitor and incubated at 37°C, there was a delay in the dimorphic M→Y transition, suggesting that histidine kinases could be targets of interest for PCM therapy.
S-Nitroso-Proteome of Paracoccidioides brasiliensisIn addition, we detected that the transnitrosylation/denitrosylation redox signaling are preserved in this fungus. Finally, this work may help to uncover the beneficial and antifungal properties of NO in the P. brasiliensis and point to useful targets for the development of antifungal drugs.
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a cause of disease in healthy and immunocompromised persons in Latin America. The infection begins after inhalation of the fungal propagules and their thermo-dimorphic shift to yeast form. The development of the disease depends on factors associated with the host immune response and the infectious agent's characteristics, especially virulence. The oxidative stress response is an important virulence attribute in several fungi. In this study, we assessed the enzymatic repertoire of responses to oxidative stress in the Pb18 isolate with different degrees of virulence. The virulence of attenuated Pb18 (aPb18) strain was recovered after several animal passages. Virulent strain (vPb18) showed an effective fungal oxidative stress response and several genes involved in response to oxidative stress were up-regulated in this isolate. These genes expressed the same profile when we recovered the phenotypic virulence in attenuated strain aPb18. Our study demonstrated that attenuated P. brasiliensis recovered their virulence after serial animal passages (vPb18), and this process positively modulated the fungus's antioxidant repertoire.
The dimorphic fungi of the Paracoccidioides genus are the causative agents of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). This disease is endemic in Latin America and primarily affects workers in rural areas. PCM is considered a neglected disease, despite being a disabling disease that has a notable impact on the public health system. Paracoccidioides spp. are thermally dimorphic fungi that present infective mycelia at 25 °C and differentiate into pathogenic yeast forms at 37 °C. This transition involves a series of morphological, structural, and metabolic changes which are essential for their survival inside hosts. As a pathogen, the fungus is subjected to several varieties of stress conditions, including the host immune response, which involves the production of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species, thermal stress due to temperature changes during the transition, pH alterations within phagolysosomes, and hypoxia inside granulomas. Over the years, studies focusing on understanding the establishment and development of PCM have been conducted with several limitations due to the low effectiveness of strategies for the genetic manipulation of Paracoccidioides spp. This review describes the most relevant biological features of Paracoccidioides spp., including aspects of the phylogeny, ecology, stress response, infection, and evasion mechanisms of the fungus. We also discuss the genetic aspects and difficulties of fungal manipulation, and, finally, describe the advances in molecular biology that may be employed in molecular research on this fungus in the future.
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is the most prevalent deep mycosis in Latin America and is caused by fungi from the Paracoccidioides genus. Virulence factors are important fungal characteristics that support the development of disease. Aspartyl proteases (Saps) are virulence factors in many human fungal pathogens that play an important role in the host invasion process. We report here that immunization with recombinant Sap from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (rPbSap) imparted a protective effect in an experimental PCM model. The rPbSap-immunized mice had decreased fungal loads, and their lung parenchyma were notably preserved. An aspartyl protease inhibitor (pepstatin A) significantly decreased pulmonary injury and reduced fungal loads in the lung. Additionally, we observed that pepstatin A enhanced the fungicidal and phagocytic profile of macrophages against P. brasiliensis. Furthermore, PbSAP expression was highly altered by environmental conditions, including thermal stress, dimorphism switching and low pH. Hence, our data suggest that PbSap is an important virulence regulator in P. brasiliensis.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.