Small basestations (SBs) equipped with caching units have potential to handle the unprecedented demand growth in heterogeneous networks. Through low-rate, backhaul connections with the backbone, SBs can prefetch popular files during off-peak traffic hours, and service them to the edge at peak periods. To intelligently prefetch, each SB must learn what and when to cache, while taking into account SB memory limitations, the massive number of available contents, the unknown popularity profiles, as well as the space-time popularity dynamics of user file requests. In this work, local and global Markov processes model user requests, and a reinforcement learning (RL) framework is put forth for finding the optimal caching policy when the transition probabilities involved are unknown. Joint consideration of global and local popularity demands along with cache-refreshing costs allow for a simple, yet practical asynchronous caching approach. The novel RL-based caching relies on a Q-learning algorithm to implement the optimal policy in an online fashion, thus enabling the cache control unit at the SB to learn, track, and possibly adapt to the underlying dynamics. To endow the algorithm with scalability, a linear function approximation of the proposed Q-learning scheme is introduced, offering faster convergence as well as reduced complexity and memory requirements. Numerical tests corroborate the merits of the proposed approach in various realistic settings.
Modern distribution grids are currently being challenged by frequent and sizable voltage fluctuations, due mainly to the increasing deployment of electric vehicles and renewable generators. Existing approaches to maintaining bus voltage magnitudes within the desired region can cope with either traditional utility-owned devices (e.g., shunt capacitors), or contemporary smart inverters that come with distributed generation units (e.g., photovoltaic plants). The discrete on-off commitment of capacitor units is often configured on an hourly or daily basis, yet smart inverters can be controlled within milliseconds, thus challenging joint control of these two types of assets. In this context, a novel two-timescale voltage regulation scheme is developed for distribution grids by judiciously coupling data-driven with physicsbased optimization. On a faster timescale, say every second, the optimal setpoints of smart inverters are obtained by minimizing instantaneous bus voltage deviations from their nominal values, based on either the exact alternating current power flow model or a linear approximant of it; whereas, on the slower timescale (e.g., every hour), shunt capacitors are configured to minimize the longterm discounted voltage deviations using a deep reinforcement learning algorithm. Extensive numerical tests on a real-world 47bus distribution network as well as the IEEE 123-bus test feeder using real data corroborate the effectiveness of the novel scheme.
Caching is envisioned to play a critical role in nextgeneration content delivery infrastructure, cellular networks, and Internet architectures. By smartly storing the most popular contents at the storage-enabled network entities during off-peak demand instances, caching can benefit both network infrastructure as well as end users, during on-peak periods. In this context, distributing the limited storage capacity across network entities calls for decentralized caching schemes. Many practical caching systems involve a parent caching node connected to multiple leaf nodes to serve user file requests. To model the two-way interactive influence between caching decisions at the parent and leaf nodes, a reinforcement learning (RL) framework is put forth. To handle the large continuous state space, a scalable deep RL approach is pursued. The novel approach relies on a hyper-deep Q-network to learn the Q-function, and thus the optimal caching policy, in an online fashion. Reinforcing the parent node with ability to learnand-adapt to unknown policies of leaf nodes as well as spatiotemporal dynamic evolution of file requests, results in remarkable caching performance, as corroborated through numerical tests.
Abstract. We present lower/middle tropospheric columnaveraged CH 4 mole fraction time series measured by nine globally distributed ground-based FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) remote sensing experiments of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). We show that these data are well representative of the tropospheric regional-scale CH 4 signal, largely independent of the local surface small-scale signals, and only weakly dependent on upper tropospheric/lower stratospheric (UTLS) CH 4 variations. In order to achieve the weak dependency on the UTLS, we use an a posteriori correction method. We estimate a typical precision for daily mean values of about 0.5 % and a systematic error of about 2.5 %. The theoretical assessments are complemented by an extensive empirical study. For this purpose, we use surface in situ CH 4 measurements made within the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) network and compare them to the remote sensing data. We briefly discuss different filter methods for removing the local small-scale signals from the surface in situ data sets in order to obtain the in situ regional-scale signals. We find good agreement between the filtered in situ and the remote sensing data. The agreement is consistent for a variety of timescales that are interesting for CH 4 source/sink research: day-to-day, monthly, and inter-annual. The comparison study confirms our theoretical estimations and proves that the NDACC FTIR measurements can provide valuable data for investigating the cycle of CH 4 .Published by Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union. E. Sepúlveda et al.: NDACC FTIR and GAW surface in situ tropospheric CH 4
The goal of this study was to improve PhytoDOAS, which is a new retrieval method for quantitative identification of major phytoplankton functional types (PFTs) using hyper-spectral satellite data. PhytoDOAS is an extension of the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS, a method for detection of atmospheric trace gases), developed for remote identification of oceanic phytoplankton groups. Thus far, PhytoDOAS has been successfully exploited to identify cyanobacteria and diatoms over the global ocean from SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) hyper-spectral data. This study aimed to improve PhytoDOAS for remote identification of coccolithophores, another functional group of phytoplankton. The main challenge for retrieving more PFTs by PhytoDOAS is to overcome the correlation effects between different PFT absorption spectra. Different PFTs are composed of different types and amounts of pigments, but also have pigments in common, e.g. chl <i>a</i>, causing correlation effects in the usual performance of the PhytoDOAS retrieval. Two ideas have been implemented to improve PhytoDOAS for the PFT retrieval of more phytoplankton groups. Firstly, using the fourth-derivative spectroscopy, the peak positions of the main pigment components in each absorption spectrum have been derived. After comparing the corresponding results of major PFTs, the optimized fit-window for the PhytoDOAS retrieval of each PFT was determined. Secondly, based on the results from derivative spectroscopy, a simultaneous fit of PhytoDOAS has been proposed and tested for a selected set of PFTs (coccolithophores, diatoms and dinoflagellates) within an optimized fit-window, proven by spectral orthogonality tests. The method was then applied to the processing of SCIAMACHY data over the year 2005. Comparisons of the PhytoDOAS coccolithophore retrievals in 2005 with other coccolithophore-related data showed similar patterns in their seasonal distributions, especially in the North Atlantic and the Arctic Sea. The seasonal patterns of the PhytoDOAS coccolithophores indicated very good agreement with the coccolithophore modeled data from the NASA Ocean Biochemical Model (NOBM), as well as with the global distributions of particulate inorganic carbon (PIC), provided by MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer)-Aqua level-3 products. Moreover, regarding the fact that coccolithophores belong to the group of haptophytes, the PhytoDOAS seasonal coccolithophores showed good agreement with the global distribution of haptophytes, derived from synoptic pigment relationships applied to SeaWiFS chl <i>a</i>. As a case study, the simultaneous mode of PhytoDOAS has been applied to SCIAMACHY data for detecting a coccolithophore bloom which was consistent with the MODIS RGB image and the MODIS PIC map of the bloom, indicating the functionality of the method also in short-term retrievals
The results demonstrate that the RIM system is capable of independently supporting free tissue transfer. These vessels provide for convenient dissection and improved efficiency of these cases with successful post-surgical outcomes.
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