SUMMARY OBJECTIVE We investigated the associations between objectively assessed sedentary behavior (SB) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and body composition variables among a representative sample of Brazilian adults. METHODS Using an accelerometer, SB and MVPA were monitored for at least 5 days in 524 participants (261 men; age, 18-65 years). Each minute epoch was classified as sedentary or spent in light, moderate, or vigorous physical activity (LPA, MPA, and VPA, respectively). The measured body composition variables included abdominal perimeter (AP) and neck circumference (NC). RESULTS Men accumulated significantly more min/day of MPA (37.82 versus 27.28), VPA (1.10 versus 0.31), MVPA (39.02 versus 27.61), and steps/day (14,978 versus 13,443) than women (p<.001). In men, MPA, VPA, MVPA, and steps/day were negatively associated with AP (p<.05) independently of SB. Only VPA was significantly associated with NC (β= 0.113; p=.002). In women, only SB was significantly associated with AP (β= 0.003; p=.031). There were no significant associations between physical activity intensities and body composition in women. CONCLUSIONS Our findings on the unequal association of physical activity with body composition variables between sexes can help inform future intervention strategies in Brasil.
BackgroundRecent studies have explored the influence of socioeconomic inequalities on the diet quality. However, there is lack of evidence regarding the level of inequalities in dietary quality and its main contributing factors from population-based follow-up studies. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the level and the determinants of inequalities in diet quality in a representative sample of adolescents, adults and older adults resident in São Paulo, Brazil.MethodsData from the Health Survey of São Paulo (ISA-Capital) were analyzed for 2003 (n = 2398), 2008 (n = 1662) and 2015 (n = 1742) surveys. Information on food consumption was obtained through 24-h dietary recall, and diet quality was assessed based on the Revised Brazilian Healthy Eating Index (BHEI-R). The descriptive variables were compared using 95% confidence interval. The scores of BHEI-R and its components were compared across age groups and year. The association between socioeconomic inequalities and diet quality was based on the estimation of concentration index.ResultsWe observed that the BHEI-R scores gradually improved over 12-years, with older adults showing the greatest improvement. The increase in overall population score was observed for total fruits, whole fruits, whole grains, oils and sodium. The main contributor to socioeconomic inequality in diet quality in 2003 was ethnic group, and in 2008 and 2015, it was per capita household income; age was a persistent factor of inequality in the population over the years. Concentration indices indicated that lower income individuals had higher BHEI-R scores in 2003; however, there was a shift in favor of higher income individuals in 2008 and 2015.ConclusionsChanges in the patterns of determination of inequalities according to age, ethnic group or income during the period analyzed show the existence of ongoing process of contribution of demographic and socioeconomic factors in the diet quality of individuals in a large urban center.
Objective:To investigate the association among social determinants, lifestyle variables and diet quality in São Paulo, Brazil.Design:Cross-sectional study, 2015 Health Survey of São Paulo (Inquérito de Saúde de São Paulo (2015 ISA-Capital)) with Focus on Nutrition Study (2015 ISA-Nutrition).Setting:Population-based study, with a representative sample of adults living in São Paulo, Brazil.Participants:Adults (aged 20–59 years, n 643) and older adults (aged ≥60 years, n 545).Results:We observed differences in the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised (BHEI-R) by education, income, occupation, sex and race. Whole grains (0·63 points, 12·6 % of the maximum score), sodium (2·50 points, 25·0 %) and solid fat, alcohol and added sugars (9·28 points, 46·4 %) components had the lowest BHEI-R scores. Factors positively associated with diet quality included the presence of one disease or more (e.g. diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cancer, hypercholesterolaemia: β = 0·636, P < 0·001), income (middle income: β = 0·478, P < 0·001; high income: β = 0·966, P < 0·001) and occupation (other: β = 1·418, P < 0·001). Energy (β = –0·001, P < 0·001), alcohol consumption (β = –0·207, P = 0·027), education level (middle education: β = –0·975, P < 0·001; high education: β = –1·376, P < 0·001), races other than white (β = –0·366, P < 0·001) and being unemployed (β = –0·369, P < 0·046) were negatively associated with diet quality.Conclusions:Groups affected by socio-economic inequalities need better diet quality. Governmental actions should be implemented to reduce the consumption of energy-dense and sodium-rich foods, facilitate access and information on healthy eating, and conduct nutritional education.
O objetivo deste artigo foi realizar uma pesquisa de caráter bibliográfico acerca dos estudos desenvolvidos com representantes da família Fabaceae e destacar quais efeitos alelopáticos tais espécies desempenharam sobre outras plantas. Foram listadas 24 espécies de Fabaceae, sendo o gênero Anadenanthera o mais representativo neste artigo, com três espécies estudadas. A partir da análise dos arquivos, foi evidenciado que os representantes da família Fabaceae investigados apresentam em sua composição química substâncias responsáveis por gerar um efeito alelopático sobre outras espécies, caracterizando, dessa forma, uma função ecológica desses vegetais para a constituição dos ecossistemas em que se incluem. Além disso, tal característica pode despontar uma provável utilização desses seres no controle de plantas daninhas, que representam um grande problema para os agricultores. Também foram percebidos com maior frequência estudos voltados ao uso de bioensaios laboratoriais com o uso da espécie Lactuca sativa, noticiando a carência de estudos mais complexos sobre a ação dos aleloquímicos, quando lançados em condições naturais no ambiente. Palavras-chave: Aleloquímicos. Germinação de Sementes. Leguminosae. Abstract The objective of this paper was to perform a bibliographic research about the studies carried out with representatives of the Fabaceae family and stress out what allelopathic effects such species develop on other plants. Twenty-four Fabaceae species were listed, being the Anadenanthera genus the most representative in this article, with three species studied. It was noticed in the studies analysis that certain Fabaceae species contain in their chemical composition, substances responsible for an allelopathic effect on other species, characterizing an ecological role of these plants for the ecosystems establishment. This feature can suggest the use of these species in weed control, which represent a problem to farmers. It was seen more often studies focused on the use of laboratory bioassays with Lactuca sativa, reporting the lack of more complex studies on the action of allelochemicals when launched in natural conditions in the environment. Keywords: Allelochemicals. Seed Germination. Leguminosae.
Objective: To quantify the energy, nutrients-to-limit and total gram amount consumed, and identify their top food sources consumed by Latin Americans. Design: Data from The Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS). Setting: ELANS is a cross-sectional study representative of eight Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. Participants: Two 24h dietary recalls on non-consecutive days were used to estimate usual dietary intake of 9218 participants with ages between 15-65years. “What We Eat in America” food classification system developed by USDA was adapted and used to classify all food items consumed by the ELANS population. Food sources of energy, added sugars, saturated fatty acids (SFA), sodium and total gram amount consumed were identified and ranked based on percentage contribution to intake of total amount. Results: Three-highest ranked food categories of total energy consumed were: rice (10.3%), yeast breads (6.9%), and turnovers and other grain-based items (6.8%). Highest ranked food sources of total gram amount consumed were: fruit drinks (9.6%), other 100% juice (9.3%), and rice (8.3%). Three highest ranked sources for added sugars were: other 100% juice (24.1%), fruit drinks (16.5%), and sugar and honey (12.4%). SFA ranked foods were: turnovers and other grain-based (12.6%), cheese (11.9%), and pizza (10.3%). Three top sources of sodium were: rice (13.9%), soups (9.1%), and rice mixed dishes (7.3%). Conclusion: Identification of top sources of energy and nutrients-to-limit among Latin Americans is critical for designing strategies to help them meet nutrient recommendations within energy needs.
RESUMOIntrodução: A composição corporal e a alimentação de nadadores têm influência direta em seu desempenho esportivo. Objetivo: Avaliar a composição corporal e o consumo alimentar de nadadores adolescentes. Métodos: Estudo transversal realizado com 15 nadadores adolescentes, de ambos os sexos, de um clube de São Paulo, Brasil. Aplicou-se um questionário de identificação e houve aferição de peso, estatura, circunferências corporais e dobras cutâneas. Para a avaliação do consumo alimentar foi aplicado um recordatório de 24 horas. Resultados: A maioria dos atletas apresentou percentual de gordura corporal adequado. Houve ingestão de suplementos alimentares por todos os nadadores. Observou-se elevado consumo de proteínas e baixa ingestão de carboidratos. As maiores prevalências de inadequação de micronutrientes foram para vitamina B 9 , iodo e cálcio. Conclusão: Os resultados sugerem a necessidade de intervenção nutricional nesse grupo de atletas. Palavras
In recent decades, the prevalence of obesity has reached increasingly high rates among children and adolescents worldwide as the result of interactions between obesogenic environments and genetics. In Brazil, a middle-income country, the rates of overweight and obesity reached 18.9% and 8.7%, respectively, in 2015, corresponding to a prevalence of excess weight of 27.6%. Concomitant with these worrying data, the prevalence of insufficient physical activity in adolescents is 66.2% based on objective accelerometer measurements. The Brazilian government has taken concrete actions to contain the advance of obesity and physical inactivity and is taking part in political efforts combined with scientific evidence to develop laws, programs, and guidelines. While access to food outside the home, with the unstoppable intake of sweet beverages, sodium, and fat, is contributing to increased obesity, a lack of physical activity in leisure time or transportation must also be considered. However, while Brazil has been taking actions to address the obesogenic environment, with a view to reduce the prevalence and incidence of obesity and physical inactivity, more efforts are needed to implement these actions and approve measures that are still in progress.
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