Statins have been shown to inhibit cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in animal models.Various studies have also shown a decreased cancer-specific mortality rate in patients who were prescribed these medications. Statins inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), the rate-limiting enzyme of the mevalonate pathway. Statins induce tumour-specific apoptosis through mitochondrial apoptotic signaling pathways, which are activated by the suppression of mevalonate or geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) biosynthesis. However, there is no consensus on the molecular targets of statins for their anti-cancer effects. Several studies have been conducted to further assess the association between statin use and mortality in different types of cancer. In this review, current perspectives on clinical significance of statins in prevention and treatment of various types of cancers and proposed mechanisms are discussed.
Post-operative adhesions affect patients undergoing all types of surgeries. They are associated with serious complications, including higher risk of morbidity and mortality. Given increased hospitalization, longer operative times, and longer length of hospital stay, post-surgical adhesions also pose a great financial burden. Although our knowledge of some of the underlying mechanisms driving adhesion formation has significantly improved over the past two decades, literature has yet to fully explain the pathogenesis and etiology of post-surgical adhesions. As a result, finding an ideal preventative strategy and leveraging appropriate tissue engineering strategies has proven to be difficult. Different products have been developed and enjoyed various levels of success along the translational tissue engineering research spectrum, but their clinical translation has been limited. Herein, we comprehensively review the agents and products that have been developed to mitigate post-operative adhesion formation. We also assess emerging strategies that aid in facilitating precision and personalized medicine to improve outcomes for patients and our healthcare system.
Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most common congenital cardiac pathology which results from the fusion of two adjacent aortic valve cusps. It is associated with dilatation of the aorta, known as bicuspid valve-associated aortopathy or bicuspid aortopathy. Bicuspid aortopathy is progressive and is linked with adverse clinical events. Hence, frequent monitoring and early intervention with prophylactic surgical resection of the proximal aorta is often recommended. Over the past two decades resection strategies and surgical interventions have mainly been directed by surgeon and institution preferences. These practices have ranged from conservative to aggressive approaches based on aortic size and growth criteria. This strategy, however, may not best reflect the risks of important aortic events. A new set of guidelines was proposed for the treatment of bicuspid aortopathy. Herein, we will highlight the most recent findings pertinent to bicuspid aortopathy and its management in the context of a case presentation.
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