ABSTRACT:Coast is a unique environment in which atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere contact each other.Coastline is one of the most important linear features on the earth's surface, which display a dynamic nature. Coastal zone, and its environmental management requires the information about coastlines and their changes. This paper examines the current methods of coastline change detection using satellite images. Based on the advantages and drawbacks of the methods, a new procedure has been developed. The proposed procedure is based on a combination of histogram thresholding and band ratio techniques. The study area of the project is Urmia Lake; the 20 th. largest, and the second hyper saline lake in the world. In order to assess the accuracy of the results, they have been compared with ground truth observations. The accuracy of the extracted coastline has been estimated as 1.3 pixels (pixel size=30 m). Based on this investigation, the area of the lake has been decreased approximately 1040 square kilometers from August 1998 to August 2001. This result has been verified through TOPEX/Posidon satellite information that indicates a height variation of three meters.
The most dangerous landslide disasters always cause serious economic losses and human deaths. The contribution of this work is to present an integrated landslide modelling framework, in which an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is combined with the two optimization algorithms of whale optimization algorithm (WOA) and grey wolf optimizer (GWO) at Anyuan County, China. It means that WOA and GWO are used as two meta-heuristic algorithms to improve the prediction performance of the ANFIS-based methods. In addition, the step-wise weight assessment ratio analysis (SWARA) method is used to obtain the initial weight of each class of landslide influencing factors. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed framework, 315 landslide events in history were selected for our experiments and were randomly divided into the training and verification sets. To perform landslide susceptibility mapping, fifteen geological, hydrological, geomorphological, land cover, and other factors are considered for the modelling construction. The landslide susceptibility maps by SWARA, SWARA-ANFIS, SWARA-ANFIS-PSO, SWARA-ANFIS-WOA, and SWARA-ANFIS-GWO models are assessed using the measures of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and root-mean-square error (RMSE). The experiments demonstrated that the obtained results of modelling process from the SWARA to the SAWRA-ANFIS-GWO model were more accurate and that the proposed methods have satisfactory prediction ability. Specifically, prediction accuracy by area under the curve (AUC) of SWARA, SWARA-ANFIS, SWARA-ANFIS-PSO, SWARA-ANFIS-GWO, and SWARA-ANFIS-WOA models were 0.831, 0.831, 0.850, 0.856, and 0.869, respectively. Due to adaptability and usability, the proposed prediction methods can be applied to other areas for landslide management and mitigation as well as prevention throughout the world.
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